A. Introduction and Background
1. The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen a universal recognition for
spreading financial literacy among people. The concept of improving financial
literacy as a national project has been gradually building. Most of the countries
are adopting a unified and coordinated national strategy for financial education.
Given the fact that India is having large population, a fast growing economy with
national focus on inclusive growth and an urgent need to develop a vibrant and
stable financial system, it is all the more necessary to quickly formulate and
implement a national strategy. Also since a large number of stakeholders
including the central and state governments, financial regulators, financial
institutions, civil society, educationists and others are involved in spreading
financial literacy; a broad national strategy is a prerequisite to ensure that they
work in tandem according to the strategy and not at cross purposes. The
formulation and implementation of National Strategy for Financial Education will
reap rich benefits to the country and can be attributed to following reasons:
a) Inclusive Growth, Financial Inclusion & Financial Education: Financial
education play a vital role in making demand side respond to the initiatives of
the supply side interventions. Financial inclusion is one of the top most policy
priorities of the Government of India. One of the most visible aspects of the
governance has been agenda of social inclusion of which financial inclusion is
an integral part. ‘Financial literacy, and education, plays a crucial role in
financial inclusion, inclusive growth and sustainable prosperity’*.
b) Knowledge and skill: Increasing range and complexity of products has
made it very difficult for an ordinary person to take an informed decision.
Financial literacy develops confidence, knowledge and skills to manage financial products and services enabling them to have more control of their
present and future circumstances
c) Freedom from exploitation: Financial literacy will help in protecting
society and individuals against exploitative financial schemes and
exorbitant interest rate charged by moneylenders.
d) Avoidance of over indebtedness: Financial education will help to avoid
over-indebtedness, improve quality of services and make wise financial
e) Promoting entrepreneurship: Small entrepreneurs who would be
educated and already have a business sense will benefit through
awareness about new financial products and help them to understand the
dynamics of market mechanism and improve their business dealings.
f) Positive Spill-over effects: Financial education can lead to multiplier
effects in the economy. A well educated household would resort to regular
savings, which in turn would lead to investment in right channels and
income generation. The financial well being of individuals will in turn
increase the welfare of the society.
g) Shifting of Pension Responsibility from State / Corporations to
Individuals: A financially educated person would be in a better position
to assess his/her own requirements and make savings in appropriate
schemes. It reduces strain on social programs and pension plans, and
fosters an economy that is more resilient.
h) Behavioral Change: The proliferation of financial products has led to its
indiscriminate usage without realizing its financial implications by the
user.’ In fact, the recent global financial crisis has raised the question whether individuals’ lack of financial knowledge led them to take out
adjustable rate mortgages or incur credit card debt they could not afford.‘*
Financial Education can become an agent of behavioral change.
i) Deeper participation in Financial Markets: In India, we need to convert
savers into investors. More participation of domestic retail investors in
securities market will give dividends by Increasing depth of securities
market, reducing dependence on foreign investors and domestic savers
reaping benefits of Corporate Growth and reducing strain on Government
Treasury for investment in National Infrastructure.
2. OECD defines Financial Literacy as a combination of financial awareness,
knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviour necessary to make sound financial
decisions and ultimately achieve individual financial well being. People achieve
financial literacy through a process of financial education.
3. OECD defines Financial education as “the process by which financial
consumers/investors improve their understanding of financial products, concepts
and risks and, through information, instruction and/or objective advice, develop
the skills and confidence to become more aware of financial risks and
opportunities, to make informed choices, to know where to go for help, and to
take other effective actions to improve their financial well-being”.
4. According to OECD, framework of National Strategy for Financial Education
promotes a smoother and more sustainable co-operation between regulators and
stakeholders, avoids duplication of resources and allows development of
articulated and tailored roadmaps with measurable and realistic objectives based
on dedicated national assessments.
Globally, Countries like Czech Republic, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain, and
UK have already implemented National Strategy for Financial Education, while
many other countries are in the process of formulation and implementation.
5. In India where majority of its population is financially excluded and coexisting
with various other financially included sections of population which invest in
capital markets and use other advanced financial products, we need a tiered
approach under National strategy for spreading awareness about basic financial
products to link them to the formal financial sector, educating the existing users
of financial products and services to make the informed choices and ensuring
consumer protection for all the users of financial products and services. Based
on the above trilogy of needs the key components of the national strategy could
be a continuum of financial literacy-financial education and consumer protection.
6. The key components of financial literacy efforts could be to spread across
country some of the following simple messages of day to day finance.
Why you will need regular stream of income post working life –pension?
Why save or invest regularly and consistently?
Why insure fully?
Why save with banks?
Why borrow within Limits?
Why borrow from banks?
What is the difference between saving and investment?
Why borrow for income generating purposes?
Why repay loans?
Why repay loans in time?
Why do you need insurance?
What is interest? How moneylenders charge very high interest rates?
7. The key components of financial education efforts could be
a) Understanding the key financial products one may need throughout
one’s life – including bank accounts, insurance, retirement savings plans and
securities market investments like stocks, bonds and mutual funds.
b) Understanding basic financial concepts like compound interest, present
and future value of money, annuity, investment return, risk, protection and
diversification and so on.
c) Developing skills and confidence to be aware of financial risk and
opportunities and to benefit from them.
d) Making good financial choices about saving, spending, insurance,
investing and managing debt throughout one’s life: for example, when
getting an education, starting a job, buying a house, starting a family, getting
ready to retire and living out the senior years.
8. The key component of consumer protection efforts at the higher end of the
national strategy continuum could be
a) Creation of awareness about district, State and National Level Consumer
protection foras and providing quick and easy access to users of financial
products and services to these bodies
b) Providing quick and easy access to various financial sector ombudsmen and
strengthening their network and reach across country.
In view of the above, we need to clearly articulate a national strategy for financial
education to get everyone on board.
B. Vision, Mission, Goals, Strategic Action Plan and Stakeholders
1. Vision - A financially aware and empowered India
The vision entails provision of financial education for all Indians that could enable
individuals, at their level of need, to understand the role of money in their life, the need and use of savings, the advantages of using the formal financial sector and various
options to convert their savings into investments, protection through insurance and a
realistic recognition of the attributes of these options.
2. Mission- To undertake massive Financial Education campaign to help people
manage money more effectively to achieve financial well being by accessing
appropriate financial products and services through regulated entities with fair
and transparent machinery for consumer protection and grievance redressal.
To conduct financial education campaign across the country for all sections of the
population along with awareness campaigns at different levels for existing and potential
customers so as to improve the knowledge, understanding, skills and competence of
theirs in managing money effectively to improve his/her financial status by taking
The mission will be accomplished through provision of financial education throughout
the life cycle of an individual starting from the school level. The endeavour is to ensure
well being of individuals through financial inclusion.
3. Goals- National Strategy for Financial Education has been prepared with the
a) Create awareness and educate consumers on access to financial services,
availability of various types of products and their features.
b) Change attitudes to translate knowledge into behaviour.
c) Make consumers understand their rights and responsibilities as clients of
4. Action Plan with Timeframe- Given the fast pace of changes in the financial
world, it will be reasonable to have a five year timeframe for implementation of
the strategy. The above mission will be accomplished only through Strategic
Action Plan to be executed in the five year period.
a) To set up the structure as envisaged in this document
b) To incorporate basic financial education in school curricula up to senior
c) Create awareness about consumer protection and grievances redressal
machinery available in the country
d) The Financial Education to be delivered by trained persons in a format
suitable to each target group with the content that has been developed by
e) All the above measures would be undertaken through various
stakeholders including NGOs, civil society and by using all channels of
f) To establish initial contact with 500 million adults, educating them on key
saving, protection and investment related products so that they are
empowered to take prudent financial decisions
5. Stake-holders- The strategy recognises the following stakeholders. The list is
indicative, not exhaustive.
a) Financial Consumers-Individuals resident in India
b) Financial Market players-Financial Institutions that act as savings aggregators
viz. banks, non banking financial companies, mutual funds, pension funds,
insurance companies etc and Financial Institutions that act as intermediaries
such as brokers, merchant bankers, registrars, depositories, exchanges,
insurance brokers, corporate agents etc.
c) Educational Institutions
d) Non Governmental Organizations
e) Financial Sector Regulators
f) Government- both Central and State
g) Multilateral international players like OECD, G-20, INFE, etc.
Assessment of the need of Financial Education
A. National Survey on Financial Education
Several Countries such as Australia, New Zealand, France and the USA have
conducted detailed survey on the state of financial literacy in their countries. These
surveys mainly concern topics related to money management, financial planning,
choosing and buying products. International Network on Financial Education (INFE) has
also conducted a survey on Financial Literacy across 12 countries. Further, cross
country surveys have been carried out for School students and adults. The results of the
survey serve various purposes viz.
a) Identifying the needs and gaps.
b) Establishing the direction of the effort.
c) Identifying special groups such as women and illiterates that need attention
d) Serving as an evaluation and benchmarking standard as the result of future
initiatives can be measured by comparing with the baseline numbers.
While the Groups in India may be different in view of large scale financial exclusion, it is
necessary that as a very first step towards financial literacy, a nationwide sample survey
may be by different regulators through an outside agency like NCAER etc., shall be
carried out for assessing the state of financial inclusion and financial literacy. The
survey should have the following elements:
a) The state of financial inclusion i.e. Whether the person has Saving Account, Loan
Account, Mutual Fund Investment, Insurance Policy, Pension plan etc.
b) The state of awareness of financial products viz. how many types of savings and
investments options are available to him.
c) The state of financial competency viz. whether he understands the concept of
compound interest, Present Value of Money, annuity etc.
d) His/her attitude towards money viz. whether he prepares a budget, or consider
drawl from credit cards as normal means of financing.
e) His/her attitude towards risk
f) Whether the person has any pension coverage for old age and if so, the nature of
pension that is available
Once the initial assessment is done the incremental progress can be assessed through
reporting by market players to regulators. An effort in this regard is underway across
regulators through Technical Group of Sub Committee of FSDC.
B. Assessment through Complaints and Creation of Complaint Repository
The repository of complaints available with regulators gives an insight of the areas
where financial education would be able to improve consumer awareness of various
products and also help in addressing gaps in consumer protection.,
To use this repository effectively, there is need of
a) Systematic collection
b) Monitoring, and
c) Analytical study
of the collected complaints.
C. Assessment of Needs through International Experience
While in India, in view of large scale financial exclusion the needs of financially illiterate
and excluded may be different from other countries where large sections of populations
are financially included, a cursory look at the literature shows that the basic issues in
financial education for those already included are not different in most countries. Even
as we do not have the results of our survey, a study of international survey will indicate
the broad directions that our nation should take. A systemic study by a dedicated team
will be necessary.
Ideally, the work of designing the campaigns should be carried out after the results of
the survey are available. However, we may follow parallel routes to some extent in view
of the following:
We are starting on our efforts years after other countries have already
conducted some surveys. A preliminary look at the survey clearly shows
the direction in which we should proceed. Even in developed countries,
the state of financial inclusion is far from satisfactory, the financial
knowledge quite limited and attitudes either too cavalier or totally risk
Large quantity of anecdotal material is available through the work carried
out by regulators such as RBI, SEBI, IRDA, PFRDA etc. on the one hand
and by NGOs and Microfinance Institutions on the other hand. For
determining the initial approach, this data bank should be sufficient.
D. Efforts made so far in the field of Financial Education
1. RBI’s initiatives on Financial Education
Reserve Bank of India has undertaken a project titled “Project Financial Literacy”.
The objective of this project is to disseminate information regarding the central
bank and general banking concepts to various target groups, including school
and college students, women, rural and urban poor, defense personnel and
senior citizens. The project envisages a multi pronged approach. The project
has been designed to be implemented in two modules, one module focusing on
the economy, RBI and its activities, and the other module on general banking.
The material is created in English and other vernacular languages. It is
disseminated to the target audience with the help of banks, local government
machinery, schools and colleges through presentations, pamphlets, brochures,
films and also through RBI’s website.
2. SEBI’s Initiatives on Financial Education
Securities Exchange Board of India has embarked financial education on a
nationwide campaign. To undertake financial education to various target
segments viz. school students, college students, working executives, middle income group, home makers, retired personnel, self help groups etc., SEBI has
empanelled Resource Persons throughout India. The Resource Persons are
given training on various aspects of finance and equipped with the knowledge
about the financial markets. These SEBI Certified Resource Persons organise
workshops to these target segments on various aspects viz. savings, investment,
financial planning, banking, insurance, retirement planning etc. More than 3500
workshops have been already conducted in various states covering around two
lakh and sixty thousand participants.
Investor education programs are conducted by SEBI through investor
associations all over the country. Regional seminars are conducted by SEBI
through various stakeholders viz. Stock Exchanges, Depositories, Mutual Funds
Association, Association of Merchant Bankers etc. SEBI has a dedicated website
for investor education wherein study materials are available for dissemination.
SEBI also publishes study materials in English and vernacular languages. Under
‘Visit SEBI’ programme, School and college students are encouraged to visit
SEBI and understand its functioning. SEBI has recently set up SEBI Helpline in
14 languages wherein through a toll free number, investors across the country
can access and seek information for redressal of their grievances and guidance
on various issues.
3. IRDA’S Initiatives on Financial Education
Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority has taken various initiatives in
the area of financial literacy. Awareness programmes have been conducted on
television and radio and simple messages about the rights and duties of
policyholders, channels available for dispute redressal etc have been
disseminated through television and radio as well as the print media through
sustained campaigns in English, Hindi and 11 other Indian languages. IRDA
conducts an annual seminar on policy holder protection and welfare and also
partially sponsors seminars on insurance by consumer bodies. IRDA has got a
pan India survey on awareness levels about insurance carried out through the NCAER in a bid to improve on its strategy of crating insurance awareness. IRDA
has also brought out publications of ‘Policyholder Handbooks’ as well as a comic
book series on insurance. A dedicated website for consumer education in
insurance is on the verge of launch
IRDA’s Integrated Grievance Management System (IGMS) creates a central
repository of grievances across the country and provides for various analyses of
data indicative of areas of concern to the insurance policyholder.
4. PFRDA Initiatives on Financial Education
The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority, India’s youngest
regulator has been engaged in spreading social security messages to the public.
PFRDA has developed FAQ on pension related topics on its web, and has been
associated with various non government organizations in India in taking the
pension services to the disadvantaged community.
PFRDA’s initiatives have become more broad-based with direct mass publicity on
NPS – both as individual model through POPs and group models through
Aggregators. PFRDA has issued advertisements in print media and electronic
media through radio and television. PFRDA appointed intermediaries are called
Aggregators who are directly responsible for pension awareness mostly in
vernacular languages and in line with socio-economic sensibilities
5. Market players Initiatives on Financial Education
Commercial banks are increasingly realizing that they are missing out on large
segment of financially illiterate and excluded segment of prospective customers.
Also, in view of the national emphasis on electronic benefit transfer the
commercial banks have initiated various measures for creating awareness
through Financial Literacy and Counseling Centers and Rural Self Employment
Training Institutes on financial literacy. The objective of these centers is to advise
people on gaining access to the financial system including banks, creating awareness among the public about financial management, counseling people
who are struggling to meet their repayment obligations and help them resolve
their problems of indebtedness, helping in rehabilitation of borrowers in distress
etc. Some of these credit counseling centers even train farmers/women groups
to enable them to start their own income generating activities to earn a
reasonable livelihood. Even top management of commercial banks is undertaking
Outreach visits to villages with a view to spread financial literacy.
Similarly, many Stock Exchanges, Broking Houses and Mutual Funds have
initiatives in the field of financial education that spawns conducting of seminars,
issuance of do’s and don’ts, and newspaper campaigns. Insurance companies
too, carry out campaigns and other educational activities for generic education in
It will be necessary to collate all the material developed by these institutions and
classify it in the light of the approach outlined in this strategy paper. The cleaned
material suitably augmented should form the kernel of knowledge base
envisaged in the strategy.
E. Mapping of Financial Education Content in the School Curricula
The most effective way is to weave financial education in the normal content of
curriculum. For example, compound interest is taught in Arithmetic as an abstract
concept of, A lending to B at some interest rate compounded annually. This can
be turned into an opportunity of financial education by weaving into a problem of
a company that borrows from a bank or a bank customer who opens a
Cumulative Deposit Account instead of a simple Fixed Deposit Account.
Similarly, there are opportunities available in the syllabi of Social Studies, Moral
A. Components of Financial Education
1. Basic Financial Education
The basic financial education consists of fundamental tenets of financial well being such
as importance and advantages of savings, necessity of staying out of unproductive
loans that are beyond the capacity to repay, borrowing with formal financial sector,
concept of interest and the power of compounding, time value of money, inflation, the
need to insure, role of major financial sector institutions such as ministries, regulators,
banks, stock exchanges and insurance companies and basic concept regarding relation
between risks and rewards. An attempt has to be made to convey these basic concepts
to everyone especially to those who are financially excluded at present. However, the
modes of delivery can be different depending upon who is the recipient. School children
can be reached best through school curricula, employees can be reached through
employers, home makers through NGOs and so on. The content and method of
presentation has also to be tailored according to the target groups. A large number of
financially excluded rural folk will have to be reached through the network of rural
branches of banks and Lead district managers of Lead banks.
However, it has to be kept in mind that the content has to be sector neutral. The general
lessons in prudent financial behavior need to be imparted.
Considering the scale of efforts involved, Ministry of Human Resources Development
(MHRD), Government of India should be responsible and take lead in ensuring inclusion
of financial literacy material in school curriculum across India through coordination with
various boards, ministries and state governments. The Ministry of Finance (MOF),
Government of India shall be facilitator for the inclusion of financial literacy in school
curriculum through MHRD. Support for course content development and monitoring
shall be provided by all concerned as envisaged in Section IV.
2. Sector Focused Financial Education
This component is to be targeted to largely already financially included actual
consumers. To begin with four sectors can be identified viz. banking, securities market,
insurance and retirement planning. Education for the actual and potential securities
market investor may consist of basics of stock exchange mechanism, clearing and
settlement mechanism, dematerialization and depositories, and role of various
intermediaries such as brokers, merchant bankers, registrars, transfer agents,
underwriters etc. Potentially risky areas such as margin trading and derivatives need to
be flagged. Various instruments such as shares, mutual funds units, corporate bonds,
pension plans etc. needs to be explained.
In the same way, bank related financial education should consist of details such as
responsibilities under Negotiable Instruments Act, precautions while dealing with ATMs
and net banking, fundamentals of payment system, lockers and safe custody, loans and
guarantees, fixed versus floating rates of loans etc. Insurance has to cover the basic
concepts related to Insurance Sector; life and non life including adequacy of cover,
need to pay regular premium etc. Retirement planning should be targeted to all persons
in earning age bracket with roles of Pension Fund Manager (PFM) / annuity service
providers. The composition of various investment portfolio mix e.g. equity, debt, mutual
funds etc. need to be explained. Sector focused financial education has to be totally
product neutral. This could be achieved by carefully designing the content. The risk of
misselling and steps to ensure understanding of appropriate and suitable products and
services also need to be highlighted in sector focused financial education.
Considering their expertise and mandate, each regulator shall be responsible for
designing/monitoring of study material and implementation of this objective in their
respective areas. For example, RBI shall be responsible for banking sector while SEBI
shall be responsible for securities markets. Similarly, IRDA and PFRDA would be
responsible for insurance and pension related education efforts. Support for content
development and monitoring shall be provided as envisaged in Section IV.
3. Product Education
Finally, when a financial sector consumer is buying a product or is being convinced to
buy a product, it is necessary that he may be educated about the particular product that
is being sold. Product education has to be neutral between the various available options
within that product range. In view of the above the best agency for delivery of product
education would be the respective industry association. Thus IBA, AMFI, FIMMDA,
FEDAI etc have to play an important role in this through general campaigns or through
ensuring availability of comparative knowledge at points of sale.
The more important part of the product education lies with the manufacturer of the
product himself. In the financial products, it will translate into the manufacturer i.e.
banks, insurance companies, Mutual Funds, Stock Exchanges, Pension Funds etc
taking the responsibility of educating the buyer about the appropriateness of the
product, performance under various possible scenarios, charge structure through simple
examples. It may be noted that the product education can be and should be delivered
primarily at the point of sale.
The role of the respective regulator will be to ensure that the product manufacturers
impart product education in general and at the point of sale in particular. Further, the
regulators will have to ensure that the product education is comprehensive while being
simple and true.
Awareness of Consumer protection and grievance redressal measures: This would
primarily be the responsibility of regulators, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of
Consumer affairs etc. All stakeholders need to provide knowledge about and access to
various consumer protection and grievance redressal machinery like sector ombudsman
and consumer courts etc.
B. Content of Financial Education
Attitude training should also form a part of financial education. In certain population
groups, not caring for the future and living for the moment might be dominating values.
Such attitudes are inimical to long term financial well being. Financial education must
seek to impart responsible attitudes.
2. Financial Competencies
A core group of financial competencies such as interest calculation, compounding, time
value of money etc. needs to be identified and suitably incorporated. Achieving these
will be the primary aim of financial education.
3. Risk Assessment and Confidence
Most of the time people are not able to achieve financial well being because of their
inability to properly assess the true risk in a deal. They lack the confidence to take a
well thought out risk and their financial assets consistently under perform. Building such
confidence should be part of financial education.
C. Financial Education for the Illiterate
Illiterate persons are in most dire need of financial education. Illiterate people need not
have to wait for alphabet knowledge as money has its own language, in the sense that
even illiterates understand the importance, value and uses of money. In our attempt to
spread financial education we usually target the literate persons. The illiterate go under
the radar. The traditional curriculum, methodology and delivery channels have to be
different and innovative for giving financial education to the illiterate. As argued earlier
we need to impart simple messages of financial prudence like importance of savings,
borrowing within limits and using formal financial intermediaries. Adult education
methodologies like Role plays, charts, informal discussions, games, and other audio
visual modes of communication would also be ideal for such groups.
D. Delivery Channels for Financial Education
1. School Curriculum
Governments have recognized that financial education should start at school and that
people should be educated about financial matters as early as possible in their lives.
OECD has developed Guidelines aimed at providing high-level international and non
binding guidance to assist policymakers and interested stakeholders in designing,
introducing and developing efficient financial education programmes in schools. Such
Guidelines can thus be adapted as necessary to national or other jurisdictional
circumstances and in particular curriculum and diversity of educational systems.
The guidelines specify a consistent and suitable framework for integration of financial
education into school curricula. It includes making financial education in school
programmes, developing appropriate, tailored and quantifiable goals, keeping the
implementation flexible, identifying suitability and sustainability of resources, monitoring
progress and impact, ensuring suitable involvement of important key stakeholders, like
government, public authorities and educational systems.
It needs to clearly be specified that the financial education would not be another subject
taught in the schools. What is needed is appropriate integration in the school
curriculum. For example, arithmetic curriculum in school already has elements of
financial education such as percentage, interest, compounding, discount etc. these
need to be presented in a modern setting that the students and the teachers will be
able to identify with. Similarly, moral science courses could have content which are
based on day to day financial transactions.
Financial education is important life skill. Therefore, our educational system should
equip students with these necessary life skills, without which, education will be
incomplete. In our country there are many students who do not get opportunity to study
beyond school level. This is truer in case of girl students. One must keep it in mind that
for such students, this could be the last opportunity in life to get formal inputs on Financial Education. An annexure indicating probable topics for school curriculum is
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has appreciated the need of
financial literacy as an important step to handle personal finance in present and adult
life in an informed and skilful way. The CBSE has agreed, in principle, to introduce it in
an integral manner in school education (Post Primary Level) and to facilitate the
process, a committee of experts has been constituted.
2. Social Marketing
Various ministries of Government of India have undertaken commendable programs of
social marketing such as polio and small pox eradication, prevention of child marriage,
preventing female foeticide etc. These campaigns can serve as models for conducting
social marketing initiatives in financial education.
There is possibility of making use of
Dedicated Financial Education websites
Radio and Television
Use of Social Networking Websites like Facebook and Twitter
Books / magazines in ‘Cartoon Format’ for young people
3. Resource Persons
The model undertaken by SEBI to impart financial education is by engaging Resource
Persons across the country for various target groups. This initiative needs to be taken
further and scaled up exponentially. Another easily scalable model as mentioned earlier
for large sections of poor people could be conducting literacy courses across country
through rural branches and LDMs of banks.
4. Adult Education
Financial education should form an integral part of the adult education.
5. Self Help Groups and others
Some of the Self Help Groups have helped in spread of financial education as its
discipline requires the groups to maintain accounts and make budgets. The good work
needs to be carried forward and put on a firm basis.
6. Microfinance Institutions
Many NGOs have been running successful financial education programs for their
borrowers. These programs need to be dovetailed into overall strategy for people in
7. Integrated communication channels
While the channels like TV, Radio, Print and internet should be exploited fully; there is a
need to leverage the existing extension works and projects carried out by various
ministries such as efforts of agriculture ministry to spread knowledge through
There is a need of multi lingual, toll free helpline where an investor/ customer / client
can call and get friendly assistance / support. It should be like a friend who is available
to guide you in case of difficulties. All regulators can think of such initiative, if they have
not already thought of it. It can play an important role in Financial Education.
9. Other Channels
There is possibility of making use of other established channels
Association of Policy Holders
Deposit holders association
Above mentioned associations are already doing work related to making their
association members aware of their rights and responsibilities in a particular
product category. They can further the cause of Financial Education.
Stock Exchanges, AMFI, ANMI, SROs associated with regulators
Regulated intermediaries like Banks, DPs, brokers, PFMs, Annuity service
providers etc. can play important part in making a person financially educated.
They can make their consumers/ clients / investors aware of their rights and
responsibilities. This can be done as part of product selling process.
A. Institutional Arrangement
The entire policy is sought to be implemented through existing institutional mechanism
The existing technical Group of Sub-Committee of FSDC on Financial Inclusion and
Financial Literacy could be morphed into this. This group shall be responsible for
periodic monitoring and implementation of National Strategy for Financial Education
National Institute of Financial Education (NIFE) could be a specialized institute
under National Institute of Securities Markets (NISM) reporting to the Technical
group for implementation of National Strategy for Financial Education.
Representative of relevant regulators shall be members of the NIFE. All regulators
shall provide funds and manpower to NIFE for implementation of National Strategy
for Financial Education
The main role of NIFE shall be to create financial education material for respective
financial sectors. NIFE shall also create and maintain a website exclusively for
financial education. All the regulators and ministries websites shall have a link to
the NIFE website. NIFE website shall have the details of various education
programmes conducted across the country, financial education material including
brochures, FAQs, videos etc. All educative materials prepared by individual
organizations shall also be made available on the NIFE website. The website
should be a one stop repository for all financial education activities and material.
The website should also be made available in various regional languages.
The proposed institutional flow chart is given below
Guidance to Regulators
Extend help to National Institute of Financial Education (NIFE in design of
content of Basic Financial Literacy programmes.
Extend help to NIFE by way of domain expertise by way of deputing experts for
Extend help to NIFE by acting as interlocutor and facilitator between NIFE and
the regulated entities.
Use its resources for spreading Financial Education, both Basic Financial
Literacy and Sector Specific Financial Education through various channels.
Create a Financial Education Cell or Department to lay down the content of the
sector specific financial education that would act as source material both for
NIFE and the Commercial Financial Institutions while spreading Financial
Education. In areas where there is no active Industry Associations, the regulators
will also develop the content of the Financial Education.
Create clear guidelines for product development by Commercial Financial
Institutions and lay down parameters for product education.
They should submit reports in prescribed formats to NIFE on a regular basis on their activities in the field of Financial Education.
Guidance to Industry Associations
To develop the content of the sector specific financial education within the
framework laid down by the sectoral regulator. The content should be freely
shared through a website open for all.
Use its resources for spreading Financial Education, both Basic Financial
Literacy and Sector Specific Financial Education through various channels on
their own accord and through the good offices of their members.
While conducting a programme on Basic Financial Literacy, to use the content
developed by NIFE.
To ensure that their resources are not used for promoting specific products.
They should submit reports in prescribed formats to NIFE on a regular basis on
their activities in the field of Financial Education.
Guidance to Commercial Financial Institutions including Microfinance Institutions
To understand that their most important contribution to Financial Education is
through a professional level product education that will allow the consumer to
make informed choices.
They may as a part of their corporate social responsibility help the Industry
Association in spreading both the Basic Financial Literacy and Sector Specific
Financial Education. However, they have to strictly adhere to the content
developed by NIFE and the Industry Associations / Sectoral Regulator
They should submit reports in prescribed formats to NIFE on a regular basis on
their activities in the field of Financial Education.
Guidance to Self Help Groups and other Groups
They may participate in spreading Financial Education, both the Basic Financial
Literacy and the Sector Specific Education according to their inclination.
However, they should strictly stick to the content developed by the NIFE and the
Industry Association / Sectoral Regulator respectively.
They should submit reports in prescribed formats to NIFE on a regular basis on
their activities in the field of Financial Education.
Guidance to Other Authorities
- Other authorities such as education authorities, agricultural and health extension
services may like to participate and to extend their infrastructure in spreading
Financial Education. While making these efforts they should, however, stick to
the content developed by NIFE or the Industry Association/ Sectoral Regulator.
List of Topics for School Curriculum
History of Money
Importance and Concept of money
2. Household Economics
Nature of Earnings
Needs and Wants
List your expenses
Find Simple ways to save money
Expenditure, Cost and Prices, Inflation
Savings & Thrift
What you save is what you earn
Borrowing - Mild Definition
Investment - Mild Definition
Interest -- Mild Definition
Interest rate -- Mild Definition
Role of a Bank - in growth of saving and Investment
Types of banks
Services offered by banks
Deposits and Loans
Types of A/c
Opening a bank A/c
How to Transact with banks
KYC norms - (A/c opening form, Address Proof)
How to read bank statement
Banking products and services
Calculating Interest --Saving, FD, Simple and Compound Interest
Power of compounding
Types of loans
Definition of EMI
Calculation of EMI
Difference between Banks and Money lenders
How to make a complaint -Banking complaints
Basic of Foreign Exchange
Importance and Use of Foreign Exchange
Check Counterfeit Currency
Regulator – Role of RBI
Principles of Investment- Safety, liquidity and return
FD, RD, Post Office Savings
Bonds and debentures
Gold and Silver
Arts and other investments
Risk and Return
Basics of Investment- liquidity, credit
Compounding and Time value of money
Nominal and Real Return(Inflation)
Effect of taxes
Long term v/s Short term
5. Behaviour Aspects
Concept of Needs and wants
Helping the needy
Spend wisely v/s waste spending
What you save is what you earn
Using money responsibly
Avoiding cash payments
Insisting on bills
Dangers of excessive borrowing
Repayment of loans
Make informed choices
Ownership of your financial decision
Take care of your old ones
Up Keep your Financial records
Free advise may be injurious
6. Financial Planning
Household financial health check up
Important life stages
Medical and other Emergencies
Buying a house
Buying a vehicle
Plan a vacation
Price of procrastination
Need and Purpose
Life ,non life and health
Benefits of Insurance
Hybrid plans -Ulip etc
Role of Insurance companies
Regulator - IRDA
How to take a new policy
How to revive old policy
Difference between Insurance and Investment
8. Retirement and Estate planning
PPF, EPF, Gratuity, NPS, SCSS
Financial need after retirement
Three Stages -Saving, Accumulating and Dis-saving
Calculation of Corpus required after retirement
Protection from Inflation
Definition of will
Making a will
9. Securities markets
Forms of Business enterprises
Primary market - Reading a prospectus, what to read
Issuers, Investor and Intermediaries
Regulator - Role of SEBI
Dealing in Securities market
Demat account and Depository
Grievance and Redressal
Financial Advisor, CA, CFP, CPFA
Basic terms and processes in Securities Market
Market rumors and tips
Sources of reliable information
What are indices ( Sensex and Nifty)
Investment v/s Speculation
10. Use of Technology Do and Don'ts
NEFT and RTGS
Need for keeping mobile number with banks
Three in one account
Need of protecting your online account
Functioning of stock exchanges
Depository working mechanism
Financial functions using excel
11. Scams, Frauds and Ponzi Schemes
Phishing mail about winning a lottery
Multi level marketing
Schemes not regulated by anyone
Real Estate frauds
Banking and credit card scams
Preventive measures from getting duped
12. Borrowings Need for borrowing
Need for borrowing Source of borrowing
Merit and demerits of borrowing
How much to borrow
Avoid life of credit
Comparing interest rate on loan offering
Importance of timely payment
Avoid borrowing for conspicuous consumption
Credit cards - Merits and Demerits
13. Consumer protection and redressal mechanism
Rights of Consumers
Applicable to Financial services
Filing a complaint
Complain to entity concerned
Govt. Websites -(PG Portals)
Need of taxes
Types of taxes
How taxes impact income
Income, wealth and gift tax
Service tax, STT, Stamp Duty
Tax planning v/s tax evasion
Tax free bonds
Tax saving investment
15. Importance of maintaining financial records
PAN and its utility
Bank statements and passbooks
Helpline numbers of service providers