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Date : Aug 06, 2020
Industrial Outlook Survey of the Manufacturing Sector for Q1:2020-21

Today, the Reserve Bank released the results of the 90th round of the Industrial Outlook Survey (IOS) conducted during April-June, 2020. The survey encapsulates qualitative assessment of the business climate by Indian manufacturing companies for Q1:2020-21 and their expectations for Q2:2020-211. In all, 802 companies responded in this round of the survey. Owing to uncertainty driven by the Covid-19 pandemic, an additional block was included in this round of the survey for assessing the outlook on key parameters for two quarters ahead as well as one year ahead.

Highlights:

A. Assessment for Q1: 2020-21

  • Manufacturing companies assessed faltering of major demand indicators like production, order books and employment conditions in Q1:2020-21; the perception of external demand conditions was also pessimistic.

  • Sentiment for overall financial situation was negative, largely driven by downfall in internal accruals.

  • Cost pressures stemming from interest payments on borrowings and purchase of inputs were assessed to soften; salary expenses also eased.

  • Respondents polled reduction in selling prices and plunge in profit margins.

  • The Business Assessment Index (BAI)2 fell sharply to all-time low at 55.3 in Q1:2020-21 from 102.2 in the previous quarter.

B. Expectations for Q2: 2020-21

  • Manufacturers expected improvements in production and order books in Q2:2020-21; the sentiments on job landscape and external demand, however, remained weak.

  • Outlook on overall financial situation portrayed some optimism.

  • Respondents tempered their expectations on selling prices on the back of lower cost burdens from inputs and salary outgo.

  • Sentiments on profit margins remain highly negative during Q2:2020-21 also.

  • The business expectations index (BEI) dipped into contraction zone and stood at 99.5 for Q2:2020-21.

Chart 1

Table A: Summary of Net responses3 on Survey Parameters
(per cent)
Parameters Assessment period Expectations period
Q4:2019-20 Q1:2020-21 Q1:2020-21 Q2:2020-21
Production 13.8 -63.9 23.7 11.2
Order Books 10.0 -54.9 18.4 8.0
Pending Orders 14.4 41.2 11.6 26.0
Capacity Utilisation 2.0 -61.6 11.3 7.6
Inventory of Raw Materials -5.1 -7.8 -2.9 -5.9
Inventory of Finished Goods -6.5 -12.6 -4.3 -7.6
Exports 5.8 -41.7 11.0 -3.8
Imports 4.7 -32.9 6.6 -1.0
Employment 2.0 -28.6 5.2 -7.7
Financial Situation (Overall) 12.8 -48.9 24.3 11.4
Availability of Finance (from internal accruals) 13.7 -30.8 17.0 6.4
Availability of Finance (from banks & other sources) 10.8 -3.0 11.7 10.6
Availability of Finance (from overseas, if applicable) 2.8 -10.3 4.0 -2.0
Cost of Finance -6.6 -0.4 -6.1 -6.7
Cost of Raw Material -34.1 -29.3 -33.6 -32.0
Salary/ Other Remuneration -24.8 9.6 -33.1 -4.0
Selling Price 2.5 -17.1 8.3 -6.0
Profit Margin -11.6 -56.8 -2.9 -26.8
Overall Business Situation 15.7 -60.2 28.2 15.7
Note: Please see the excel file for time series data

C. Expectations for Q3:2020-21 and Q1:2021-22

  • Manufacturers polled distinct betterment in key demand indicators in Q3:2020-21 sustaining through Q1:2021-22.

  • Overall business situation is expected to gradually improve by Q1:2021-22.

Table B: Business Expectations of Select Parameters for extended period – Net response
(per cent)
Parameters Round 89 Round 90
Q1:2020-21 Q2:2020-21 Q3:2020-21 Q1:2021-22
Overall Business Situation 28.2 15.7 17.3 22.4
Production 23.7 11.2 19.1 24.6
Order Books 18.4 8.0 17.6 22.9
Capacity Utilisation 11.3 7.6 20.0 20.6
Employment 5.2 -7.7 5.0 10.7

Table 1: Assessment and Expectations for Production
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net response Increase Decrease No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 38.6 15.6 45.8 23.0 42.1 9.3 48.5 32.8
Q2:2019-20 481 26.5 28.4 45.2 -1.9 40.1 11.0 48.9 29.1
Q3:2019-20 775 28.7 28.3 43.1 0.4 34.8 21.0 44.2 13.9
Q4:2019-20 860 33.6 19.8 46.6 13.8 35.4 18.2 46.4 17.2
Q1:2020-21 802 8.3 72.2 19.5 -63.9 37.8 14.1 48.1 23.7
Q2:2020-21           41.4 30.2 28.5 11.2
‘Increase’ in production is optimistic.
Note: The sum of components may not add up to total due to rounding off (This is applicable for all tables).

Table 2: Assessment and Expectations for Order Books
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net response Increase Decrease No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 34.1 15.4 50.5 18.8 38.5 8.6 52.8 29.9
Q2:2019-20 481 27.4 30.2 42.5 -2.8 31.6 11.1 57.3 20.5
Q3:2019-20 775 26.9 26.6 46.5 0.3 34.3 20.4 45.3 13.9
Q4:2019-20 860 30.1 20.1 49.9 10.0 33.6 17.0 49.3 16.6
Q1:2020-21 802 8.9 63.8 27.3 -54.9 33.5 15.1 51.4 18.4
Q2:2020-21           36.4 28.4 35.3 8.0
‘Increase’ in order books is optimistic.

Table 3: Assessment and Expectations for Pending Orders
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Above Normal Below Normal Normal Net response Above Normal Below Normal Normal Net
response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 6.0 15.7 78.3 9.6 6.1 10.4 83.5 4.3
Q2:2019-20 481 4.5 25.5 70.0 21.0 16.1 9.4 74.5 -6.7
Q3:2019-20 775 3.4 25.5 71.1 22.1 3.9 18.3 77.8 14.4
Q4:2019-20 860 4.1 18.5 77.4 14.4 3.7 19.5 76.8 15.9
Q1:2020-21 802 6.1 47.3 46.6 41.2 4.6 16.2 79.1 11.6
Q2:2020-21           5.8 31.8 62.4 26.0
Pending orders ‘Below Normal’ is optimistic.

Table 4: Assessment and Expectations for Capacity Utilisation (Main Product)
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net response Increase Decrease No change Net
response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 22.8 13.4 63.8 9.4 27.2 7.7 65.1 19.6
Q2:2019-20 481 15.9 24.9 59.2 -9.0 23.1 9.2 67.7 13.9
Q3:2019-20 775 17.5 25.8 56.7 -8.3 24.4 20.0 55.6 4.4
Q4:2019-20 860 21.0 19.0 60.0 2.0 23.1 15.2 61.6 7.9
Q1:2020-21 802 6.0 67.6 26.3 -61.6 25.5 14.2 60.3 11.3
Q2:2020-21           36.2 28.6 35.2 7.6
‘Increase’ in capacity utilisation is optimistic.

Table 5: Assessment and Expectations for Level of CU (compared to the average in last 4 quarters)
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Above Normal Below Normal Normal Net response Above Normal Below Normal Normal Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 9.6 14.8 75.7 -5.2 12.2 8.2 79.6 4.0
Q2:2019-20 481 8.1 26.6 65.3 -18.6 9.2 8.8 82.0 0.3
Q3:2019-20 775 6.6 26.9 66.5 -20.3 9.3 21.7 69.0 -12.4
Q4:2019-20 860 7.6 21.6 70.7 -14.0 7.9 18.5 73.6 -10.6
Q1:2020-21 802 2.7 63.6 33.7 -60.9 9.1 16.4 74.5 -7.3
Q2:2020-21           5.8 39.2 55.0 -33.5
‘Above Normal’ in Level of capacity utilisation is optimistic.

Table 6: Assessment and Expectations for Assessment of Production Capacity (with regard to expected demand in next 6 months)
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
More than adequate Less than adequate Adequate Net response More than adequate Less than adequate Adequate Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 11.0 6.7 82.2 4.3 12.2 6.2 81.6 6.0
Q2:2019-20 481 15.1 14.2 70.7 0.9 13.5 6.9 79.6 6.6
Q3:2019-20 775 15.8 11.7 72.5 4.2 15.3 12.4 72.2 2.9
Q4:2019-20 860 14.3 9.5 76.2 4.8 14.6 11.4 74.0 3.2
Q1:2020-21 802 19.0 24.5 56.5 -5.6 13.7 8.8 77.5 4.9
Q2:2020-21           18.7 17.3 64.0 1.3
‘More than adequate’ in Assessment of Production Capacity is optimistic.

Table 7: Assessment and Expectations for Exports
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net response Increase Decrease No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 24.6 11.5 64.0 13.1 25.7 8.0 66.2 17.7
Q2:2019-20 481 21.3 21.3 57.5 0.0 24.0 8.2 67.8 15.8
Q3:2019-20 775 18.3 19.2 62.5 -0.9 24.3 17.0 58.7 7.3
Q4:2019-20 860 20.1 14.3 65.5 5.8 22.4 13.8 63.9 8.6
Q1:2020-21 802 8.7 50.4 40.9 -41.7 22.5 11.5 66.0 11.0
Q2:2020-21           23.1 26.9 50.0 -3.8
‘Increase’ in exports is optimistic.

Table 8: Assessment and Expectations for Imports
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net response Increase Decrease No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 18.2 8.3 73.4 9.9 19.2 6.2 74.6 13.0
Q2:2019-20 481 16.0 14.5 69.6 1.5 18.4 7.4 74.2 11.1
Q3:2019-20 775 13.2 12.3 74.5 0.9 18.1 11.7 70.2 6.4
Q4:2019-20 860 16.0 11.3 72.7 4.7 15.7 10.2 74.1 5.4
Q1:2020-21 802 7.6 40.5 51.8 -32.9 16.9 10.3 72.8 6.6
Q2:2020-21           19.9 21.0 59.1 -1.0
‘Increase’ in imports is optimistic.

Table 9: Assessment and Expectations for level of Raw Materials Inventory
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Above average Below average Average Net response Above average Below average Average Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 13.9 5.7 80.4 -8.3 12.0 3.7 84.3 -8.3
Q2:2019-20 481 17.1 8.4 74.5 -8.6 11.8 4.2 84.0 -7.7
Q3:2019-20 775 13.9 7.7 78.4 -6.2 13.2 6.6 80.3 -6.6
Q4:2019-20 860 12.9 7.8 79.3 -5.1 10.6 7.0 82.4 -3.6
Q1:2020-21 802 21.3 13.5 65.2 -7.8 9.8 6.9 83.3 -2.9
Q2:2020-21           15.5 9.7 74.8 -5.9
‘Below average’ Inventory of raw materials is optimistic.

Table 10: Assessment and Expectations for level of Finished Goods Inventory
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Above average Below average Average Net response Above average Below average Average Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 13.5 6.7 79.8 -6.8 10.5 4.9 84.6 -5.6
Q2:2019-20 481 22.5 8.0 69.5 -14.5 13.0 6.0 81.0 -7.0
Q3:2019-20 775 18.3 7.3 74.4 -11.0 15.7 5.0 79.3 -10.7
Q4:2019-20 860 13.3 6.7 80.0 -6.5 12.9 6.2 80.9 -6.7
Q1:2020-21 802 27.0 14.3 58.7 -12.6 10.4 6.2 83.4 -4.3
Q2:2020-21           17.2 9.5 73.3 -7.6
‘Below average’ Inventory of finished goods is optimistic.

Table 11: Assessment and Expectations for Employment
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net response Increase Decrease No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 15.9 7.3 76.8 8.6 17.1 4.8 78.1 12.3
Q2:2019-20 481 13.4 14.2 72.4 -0.9 16.6 5.7 77.7 10.9
Q3:2019-20 775 12.2 13.8 74.0 -1.6 12.1 11.4 76.5 0.7
Q4:2019-20 860 13.4 11.3 75.3 2.0 12.5 10.7 76.8 1.8
Q1:2020-21 802 3.9 32.5 63.7 -28.6 14.3 9.0 76.7 5.2
Q2:2020-21           11.0 18.7 70.3 -7.7
‘Increase’ in employment is optimistic.

Table 12: Assessment and Expectations for Overall Financial Situation
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Better Worsen No change Net response Better Worsen No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 29.7 8.6 61.7 21.1 35.0 5.7 59.3 29.3
Q2:2019-20 481 21.2 22.2 56.6 -1.1 34.3 6.1 59.6 28.3
Q3:2019-20 775 24.6 19.3 56.1 5.3 30.6 14.8 54.7 15.8
Q4:2019-20 860 26.5 13.6 59.9 12.8 31.2 11.7 57.1 19.5
Q1:2020-21 802 8.7 57.6 33.6 -48.9 33.1 8.8 58.0 24.3
Q2:2020-21           34.6 23.2 42.2 11.4
‘Better’ overall financial situation is optimistic.

Table 13: Assessment and Expectations for Working Capital Finance Requirement
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net response Increase Decrease No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 28.5 5.4 66.1 23.2 29.6 4.1 66.3 25.6
Q2:2019-20 481 28.4 10.7 60.9 17.7 27.7 5.5 66.8 22.1
Q3:2019-20 775 27.4 8.7 63.9 18.7 29.3 5.5 65.3 23.8
Q4:2019-20 860 28.3 6.4 65.4 21.9 27.3 5.7 66.9 21.6
Q1:2020-21 802 36.9 18.8 44.4 18.1 28.8 5.7 65.5 23.1
Q2:2020-21           37.2 11.5 51.3 25.7
‘Increase’ in working capital finance is optimistic.

Table 14: Assessment and Expectations for Availability of Finance (from Internal Accruals)
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Improve Worsen No change Net response Improve Worsen No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 23.2 7.2 69.6 16.0 25.5 5.0 69.5 20.5
Q2:2019-20 481 19.6 12.7 67.7 6.9 23.0 5.7 71.3 17.3
Q3:2019-20 775 19.0 12.4 68.6 6.6 21.4 8.1 70.5 13.2
Q4:2019-20 860 23.1 9.5 67.4 13.7 22.1 8.8 69.1 13.4
Q1:2020-21 802 7.2 38.0 54.8 -30.8 23.1 6.0 70.9 17.0
Q2:2020-21           22.5 16.1 61.3 6.4
‘Improvement’ in availability of finance is optimistic.

Table 15: Assessment and Expectations for Availability of Finance (from banks and other sources)
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Improve Worsen No change Net response Improve Worsen No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 17.9 6.0 76.1 11.9 19.3 5.0 75.7 14.2
Q2:2019-20 481 14.3 10.0 75.8 4.3 17.4 4.4 78.2 13.0
Q3:2019-20 775 14.6 7.4 78.1 7.2 18.7 6.0 75.3 12.7
Q4:2019-20 860 16.9 6.1 76.9 10.8 17.7 5.9 76.4 11.7
Q1:2020-21 802 12.9 15.8 71.3 -3.0 18.1 6.4 75.4 11.7
Q2:2020-21           20.4 9.8 69.8 10.6
‘Improvement’ in availability of finance is optimistic.

Table 16: Assessment and Expectations for Availability of Finance (from overseas, if applicable)
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Improve Worsen No change Net response Improve Worsen No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 8.2 4.0 87.8 4.3 9.5 3.5 87.0 6.0
Q2:2019-20 481 6.9 4.1 89.1 2.8 13.1 3.5 83.5 9.6
Q3:2019-20 775 7.5 5.0 87.6 2.5 9.2 4.1 86.7 5.1
Q4:2019-20 860 7.2 4.4 88.4 2.8 7.3 4.3 88.4 3.0
Q1:2020-21 802 3.2 13.5 83.3 -10.3 7.9 4.0 88.1 4.0
Q2:2020-21           7.9 9.9 82.2 -2.0
‘Improvement’ in availability of finance is optimistic.

Table 17: Assessment and Expectations for Cost of Finance
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net
response
Increase Decrease No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 22.4 4.9 72.7 -17.6 20.2 5.8 74.0 -14.4
Q2:2019-20 481 21.3 8.1 70.6 -13.1 22.5 7.1 70.4 -15.4
Q3:2019-20 775 16.9 8.2 74.9 -8.7 18.5 8.4 73.1 -10.0
Q4:2019-20 860 15.0 8.4 76.6 -6.6 15.0 7.1 77.9 -7.9
Q1:2020-21 802 16.3 15.9 67.8 -0.4 12.7 6.6 80.6 -6.1
Q2:2020-21           17.6 10.9 71.5 -6.7
‘Decrease’ in cost of finance is optimistic.

Table 18: Assessment and Expectations for Cost of Raw Materials
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net
response
Increase Decrease No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 46.4 3.1 50.5 -43.3 37.2 3.5 59.2 -33.7
Q2:2019-20 481 42.4 7.1 50.5 -35.3 31.4 3.8 64.8 -27.6
Q3:2019-20 775 37.2 11.1 51.7 -26.1 37.0 6.2 56.8 -30.8
Q4:2019-20 860 41.1 7.1 51.8 -34.1 35.6 5.6 58.8 -30.0
Q1:2020-21 802 39.9 10.7 49.4 -29.3 38.9 5.3 55.7 -33.6
Q2:2020-21           37.8 5.7 56.5 -32.0
‘Decrease’ in cost of raw materials is optimistic.

Table 19: Assessment and Expectations for Salary/Other Remuneration
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net response Increase Decrease No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 38.8 1.6 59.6 -37.2 34.0 1.1 64.9 -32.9
Q2:2019-20 481 38.6 2.6 58.8 -36.0 34.5 0.9 64.6 -33.7
Q3:2019-20 775 30.6 3.6 65.8 -27.0 25.0 1.8 73.2 -23.2
Q4:2019-20 860 27.1 2.3 70.6 -24.8 25.1 3.0 71.9 -22.1
Q1:2020-21 802 12.4 22.0 65.5 9.6 35.8 2.7 61.5 -33.1
Q2:2020-21           16.5 12.5 70.9 -4.0
‘Decrease’ in Salary / other remuneration is optimistic.

Table 20: Assessment and Expectations for Selling Price
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net response Increase Decrease No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 17.1 10.5 72.4 6.6 19.5 8.5 72.0 11.0
Q2:2019-20 481 13.8 21.4 64.8 -7.6 15.5 8.4 76.1 7.1
Q3:2019-20 775 12.0 21.6 66.4 -9.6 18.6 14.0 67.3 4.6
Q4:2019-20 860 16.4 13.9 69.7 2.5 15.2 13.0 71.9 2.2
Q1:2020-21 802 9.5 26.6 64.0 -17.1 18.0 9.7 72.3 8.3
Q2:2020-21           12.9 18.9 68.1 -6.0
‘Increase’ in selling price is optimistic.

Table 21: Assessment and Expectations for Profit Margin
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Increase Decrease No change Net response Increase Decrease No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 16.1 24.1 59.8 -8.0 17.8 17.0 65.1 0.8
Q2:2019-20 481 13.5 36.1 50.4 -22.6 21.9 14.5 63.6 7.4
Q3:2019-20 775 12.3 34.4 53.3 -22.1 17.6 26.1 56.3 -8.5
Q4:2019-20 860 15.8 27.4 56.8 -11.6 16.3 26.4 57.3 -10.2
Q1:2020-21 802 5.0 61.8 33.2 -56.8 17.5 20.4 62.1 -2.9
Q2:2020-21           13.7 40.5 45.8 -26.8
‘Increase’ in profit margin is optimistic.

Table 22: Assessment and Expectations for Overall Business Situation
(Percentage responses)
Quarter Total response Assessment Expectations
Better Worsen No change Net response Better Worsen No change Net response
Q1:2019-20 1,231 35.1 10.5 54.4 24.6 42.5 5.6 51.9 36.9
Q2:2019-20 481 24.5 25.4 50.1 -0.8 41.1 6.0 52.9 35.2
Q3:2019-20 775 26.4 22.9 50.8 3.5 37.3 15.6 47.1 21.7
Q4:2019-20 860 31.6 15.8 52.6 15.7 35.8 13.2 50.9 22.6
Q1:2020-21 802 8.3 68.5 23.2 -60.2 38.6 10.4 50.9 28.2
Q2:2020-21           41.0 25.3 33.6 15.7
‘Better’ Overall Business Situation is optimistic.

Table 23: Business Sentiments
Quarter Business Assessment Index (BAI) Business Expectations Index (BEI)
Q1:2019-20 108.4 113.5
Q2:2019-20 92.5 112.8
Q3:2019-20 93.0 102.2
Q4:2019-20 102.2 105.0
Q1:2020-21 55.3 108.8
Q2:2020-21   99.5

1 The survey results reflect the views of the respondents, which are not necessarily shared by the Reserve Bank of India. This round of the survey was launched on April 24, 2020 and results were compiled with data received till June 30, 2020. The results of the 89th round of the survey (Q4:2019-20) were released on April 3, 2020 on the RBI’s website.

2 For each survey round, two indices are computed – one based on assessment [viz., Business Assessment Index (BAI)] and another based on expectations [viz., Business Expectations Index (BEI)]. Each indicator for is calculated as a weighted net response of nine business indicators, weights being the share of industry groups in gross value added (GVA). The nine indicators considered are: (1) overall business situation; (2) production; (3) order books; (4) inventory of raw material; (5) inventory of finished goods; (6) profit margins; (7) employment; (8) exports; and (9) capacity utilisation. BAI/BEI gives a snapshot of the business outlook in every quarter and takes values between 0 and 200, with 100 being the threshold separating expansion from contraction.

3 Net Response (NR) is the difference between the percentage of respondents reporting optimism and those reporting pessimism. It ranges between -100 to 100. Any value greater than zero indicates expansion/optimism and any value less than zero indicates contraction/pessimism. In other words, NR = (I – D), where, I is the percentage response of ‘Increase/optimism’, and D is the percentage response of ‘Decrease/pessimism’ and E is the percentage response as ‘no change/equal’ (i.e., I+D+E=100). For example, increase in production is optimism whereas decrease in cost of raw material is optimism.


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