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Date: Jul 01, 2010
Master Circular - Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning pertaining to Advances

RBI/2010-11/74
DBOD.No.BP.BC.21 /21.04.048/2010-11

July 1, 2010

All Commercial Banks (excluding RRBs)

Dear Sir

Master Circular - Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning pertaining to Advances

Please refer to the Master Circular No. DBOD.No.BP.BC. 17/21.04.048/2009-10 dated July 1, 2009 consolidating instructions / guidelines issued to banks till June 30, 2009 on matters relating to prudential norms on income recognition, asset classification and provisioning pertaining to advances.

2. The Master Circular has now been suitably updated by incorporating instructions issued up to June 30, 2010 and is attached. It has also been placed on the RBI web-site (http://www.rbi.org.in). We advise that this revised Master Circular consolidates the instructions contained in the circulars listed in the Annex 9.

Yours faithfully

(B. Mahapatra)
Chief General Manager-in- Charge

Encls: As above


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Para No.

Particulars

1

GENERAL

2

DEFINITIONS

 

2.1

Non­performing assets

 

2.2

‘Out of Order' status

 

2.3

‘Overdue’

3

INCOME RECOGNITION

 

3.1

Income recognition ­policy

 

3.2

Reversal of income

 

3.3

Appropriation of recovery in NPAs

 

3.4

Interest Application

 

3.5

Computation of NPA levels

4

ASSET CLASSIFICATION

 

4.1

Categories of NPAs

 

4.1.1

Sub­standard Assets

 

4.1.2

Doubtful Assets 

 

4.1.3

Loss Assets 

 

4.2

Guidelines for classification of assets

 

4.2.3

Availability of security / net worth of borrower/ guarantor

 

4.2.4

Accounts with temporary deficiencies

 

4.2.5

Upgradation of loan accounts classified as NPAs

 

4.2.6

Accounts regularised near about the balance sheet date

 

4.2.7

Asset Classification to be borrower wise and not facility-­wise

 

4.2.8

Advances under consortium arrangements

 

4.2.9

Accounts where there is erosion in the value of security

 

4.2.10

Advances to PACS/FSS ceded to Commercial Banks

 

4.2.11

Advances against Term Deposits, NSCs, KVP/IVP, etc

 

4.2.12

Loans with moratorium for payment of interest

 

4.2.13

Agricultural advances

 

4.2.14

Government guaranteed advances

 

4.2.15

Projects under implementation

 

4.2.16

Take­out Finance

 

4.2.17

Post­-shipment Supplier's Credit

 

4.2.18

Export Project Finance

 

4.2.19

Advances under rehabilitation approved by BIFR/ TLI

5

PROVISIONING NORMS

 

5.1

General

 

5.2

Loss assets

 

5.3

Doubtful assets

 

5.4

Substandard assets

 

5.5

Standard assets

 

5.6

Floating provisions

 

5.7

Provisions for advances at higher than prescribed rates

 

5.8

Provisions on Leased Assets

 

5.9

Guidelines for Provisions under Special Circumstances

 

5.10

Provisioning Coverage Ratio

6

GUIDELINES ON SALE OF FINANCIAL ASSETS TO SECURITISATION COMPANY (SC)/ RECONSTRUCTION COMPANY (RC)

 

6.1

Scope

 

6.2

Structure

 

6.3

Financial assets which can be sold

 

6.4

Procedure for sale of banks’/ FIs’ financial assets to SC/ RC, including valuation and pricing aspects

 

6.5

Prudential norms for banks/ FIs for the sale transactions

 

6.6

Disclosure Requirements

 

6.7

Related Issues

7

GUIDELINES ON PURCHASE/SALE OF NON PERFORMING ASSETS

 

7.1

Scope

 

7.4

Structure

 

7.5

Procedure for purchase/ sale of non performing financial assets, including valuation and pricing aspects

 

7.6

Prudential norms for banks for the purchase/ sale transactions

 

7.7

Disclosure Requirements

8

WRITING OFF OF NPAs

 PART B
Prudential guidelines on Restructuring of Advances

9

Background on Restructuring of advances

10

Key Concepts

11

General Principles and Prudential Norms for Restructured Advances

 

11.1

Eligibility criteria for restructuring of advances

 

11.2

Asset classification norms

 

11.3

Income recognition norms

 

11.4

Provisioning norms

12

Prudential Norms for Conversion of Principal into Debt / Equity

 

12.1

Asset classification norms

 

12.2

Income recognition norms

 

12.3

Valuation and provisioning norms

13

Prudential Norms for Conversion of Unpaid Interest into 'Funded Interest Term Loan' (FITL), Debt or Equity Instruments

 

13.1

Asset classification norms

 

13.2

Income recognition norms

 

13.3

Valuation and provisioning norms

14

Special Regulatory Treatment for Asset Classification

 

14.1

Applicability of special regulatory treatment

 

14.2

Elements of special regulatory framework

15

Miscellaneous

16

Disclosures

17

Illustrations

18

Objective of Restructuring

 PART C

Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008  (ADWDRS)- Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification, Provisioning, and Capital Adequacy

19

The background

20

Prudential Norms for the Borrowal Accounts Covered under the ADWDRS

 

20.1

Norms for the Accounts subjected to Debt Waiver

 

20.2

Norms for the Accounts subjected to the Debt Relief

 

20.3

Grant of Fresh Loans to the Borrowers covered under the ADWDRS

 

20.4

Capital Adequacy

21

Subsequent Modifications to the Prudential Norms

 

21.1

Interest payment by the GOI

 

21.2

Change in instalment schedule of “other farmers” under
the Debt Relief Scheme

 ANNEXES

Annex -1

Details of Gross Advances, Gross NPAs, Net Advances and Net NPA

Annex -2

List of relevant direct agricultural advances

Annex -3

Format for Computing Provisioning Coverage Ratio (PCR)

Annex -4

Organisational Framework for Restructuring of Advances Under Consortium / Multiple Banking / Syndication Arrangements

Annex -5

Key Concepts in Restructuring

Annex -6

Particulars of Accounts Restructured

Annex - 7

Asset Classification of Restructured Accounts under the Guidelines

Annex - 8

Special Regulatory Relaxations for Restructuring  (Available upto June 30,2009)

Annex - 9

List of circulars consolidated by the Master Circular


Master Circular - Prudential Norms on Income Recognition,
Asset Classification and Provisioning pertaining to Advances

Part A

1.  GENERAL

1.1 In line with the international practices and as per the recommendations made by the Committee on the Financial System (Chairman Shri M. Narasimham), the Reserve Bank of India has introduced, in a phased manner, prudential norms for income recognition, asset classification and provisioning for the advances portfolio of the banks so as to move towards greater consistency and transparency in the published accounts.

1.2 The policy of income recognition should be objective and based on record of recovery rather than on any subjective considerations. Likewise, the classification of assets of banks has to be done on the basis of objective criteria which would ensure a uniform and consistent application of the norms. Also, the provisioning should be made on the basis of the classification of assets based on the period for which the asset has remained non­performing and the availability of security and the realisable value thereof.

1.3 Banks are urged to ensure that while granting loans and advances, realistic repayment schedules may be fixed on the basis of cash flows with borrowers. This would go a long way to facilitate prompt repayment by the borrowers and thus improve the record of recovery in advances.

1.4 With the introduction of prudential norms, the Health Code-based system for classification of advances has ceased to be a subject of supervisory interest. As such, all related reporting requirements, etc. under the Health Code system also cease to be a supervisory requirement. Banks may, however, continue the system at their discretion as a management information tool.

2. DEFINITIONS

2.1 Non ­performing Assets

2.1.1 An asset, including a leased asset, becomes non­ performing when it ceases to generate income for the bank.

2.1.2  A non ­performing asset (NPA) is a loan or an advance where;

i. interest and/ or instalment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a term loan,

ii. the account remains ‘out of order’ as indicated at paragraph 2.2 below, in respect of an Overdraft/Cash Credit (OD/CC),

iii. the bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted,

iv. the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for two crop seasons for short duration crops,

v. the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for one crop season for long duration crops,

vi. the amount of liquidity facility remains outstanding for more than 90 days, in respect of a securitisation transaction undertaken in terms of guidelines on securitisation dated February 1, 2006.

vii. in respect of derivative transactions, the overdue receivables representing positive mark-to-market value of a derivative contract, if these remain unpaid for a period of 90 days from the specified due date for payment.

2.1.3 Banks should, classify an account as NPA only if the interest due and charged during any quarter is not serviced fully within 90 days from the end of the quarter.

2.2 ‘Out of Order’ status

An account should be treated as 'out of order' if the outstanding balance remains continuously in excess of the sanctioned limit/drawing power. In cases where the outstanding balance in the principal operating account is less than the sanctioned limit/drawing power, but there are no credits continuously for 90 days as on the date of Balance Sheet or credits are not enough to cover the interest debited during the same period, these accounts should be treated as 'out of order'.

2.3  ‘Overdue’

Any amount due to the bank under any credit facility is ‘overdue’ if it is not paid on the due date fixed by the bank.

3. INCOME RECOGNITION

3.1 Income Recognition Policy

3.1.1 The policy of income recognition has to be objective and based on the record of recovery. Internationally income from non­performing assets (NPA) is not recognised on accrual basis but is booked as income only when it is actually received. Therefore, the banks should not charge and take to income account interest on any NPA.

3.1.2 However, interest on advances against term deposits, NSCs, IVPs, KVPs and Life policies may be taken to income account on the due date, provided adequate margin is available in the accounts.

3.1.3 Fees and commissions earned by the banks as a result of re­negotiations or rescheduling of outstanding debts should be recognised on an accrual basis over the period of time covered by the re­negotiated or rescheduled extension of credit.

3.1.4 If Government guaranteed advances become NPA, the interest on such advances should not be taken to income account unless the interest has been realised.

3.2  Reversal of income

3.2.1 If any advance, including bills purchased and discounted, becomes NPA, the entire interest accrued and credited to income account in the past periods, should be reversed if the same is not realised. This will apply to Government guaranteed accounts also.

3.2.2 In respect of NPAs, fees, commission and similar income that have accrued should cease to accrue in the current period and should be reversed with respect to past periods, if uncollected.

3.2.3 Leased Assets

The finance charge component of finance income [as defined in ‘AS 19 ­Leases’ issued by the Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI)] on the leased asset which has accrued and was credited to income account before the asset became non­performing, and remaining unrealised, should be reversed or provided for in the current accounting period.

3.3 Appropriation of recovery in NPAs

3.3.1 Interest realised on NPAs may be taken to income account provided the credits in the accounts towards interest are not out of fresh/ additional credit facilities sanctioned to the borrower concerned.

3.3.2 In the absence of a clear agreement between the bank and the borrower for the purpose of appropriation of recoveries in NPAs (i.e. towards principal or interest due), banks should adopt an accounting principle and exercise the right of appropriation of recoveries in a uniform and consistent manner.

3.4  Interest Application

On an account turning NPA, banks should reverse the interest already charged and not collected by debiting Profit and Loss account, and stop further application of interest. However, banks may continue to record such accrued interest in a Memorandum account in their books. For the purpose of computing Gross Advances, interest recorded in the Memorandum account should not be taken into account.

3.5  Computation of NPA levels

Banks are advised to compute their Gross Advances, Net Advances, Gross NPAs and Net NPAs, as per the format in Annex -1.

4. ASSET CLASSIFICATION

4.1 Categories of NPAs

Banks are required to classify non­performing assets further into the following three categories based on the period for which the asset has remained non­performing and the realisability of the dues:

i. Sub­standard Assets

ii. Doubtful Assets

iii. Loss Assets

4.1.1 Sub­standard Assets

With effect from 31 March 2005, a sub­standard asset would be one, which has remained NPA for a period less than or equal to 12 months. In such cases, the current net worth of the borrower/ guarantor or the current market value of the security charged is not enough to ensure recovery of the dues to the banks in full. In other words, such an asset will have well defined credit weaknesses that jeopardise the liquidation of the debt and are characterised by the distinct possibility that the banks will sustain some loss, if deficiencies are not corrected.

4.1.2 Doubtful Assets

With effect from March 31, 2005, an asset would be classified as doubtful if it has remained in the sub­standard category for a period of 12 months. A loan classified as doubtful has all the weaknesses inherent in assets that were classified as sub­ standard, with the added characteristic that the weaknesses make collection or liquidation in full, – on the basis of currently known facts, conditions and values – highly questionable and improbable.

4.1.3 Loss Assets

A loss asset is one where loss has been identified by the bank or internal or external auditors or the RBI inspection but the amount has not been written off wholly. In other words, such an asset is considered uncollectible and of such little value that its continuance as a bankable asset is not warranted although there may be some salvage or recovery value.
 
4.2 Guidelines for classification of assets
 
4.2.1 Broadly speaking, classification of assets into above categories should be done taking into account the degree of well-defined credit weaknesses and the extent of dependence on collateral security for realisation of dues.

4.2.2 Banks should establish appropriate internal systems to eliminate the tendency to delay or postpone the identification of NPAs, especially in respect of high value accounts. The banks may fix a minimum cut off point to decide what would constitute a high value account depending upon their respective business levels. The cut off point should be valid for the entire accounting year. Responsibility and validation levels for ensuring proper asset classification may be fixed by the banks. The system should ensure that doubts in asset classification due to any reason are settled through specified internal channels within one month from the date on which the account would have been classified as NPA as per extant guidelines.

4.2.3  Availability of security / net worth of borrower/ guarantor

The availability of security or net worth of borrower/ guarantor should not be taken into account for the purpose of treating an advance as NPA or otherwise, except to the extent provided in Para 4.2.9, as income recognition is based on record of recovery.

4.2.4 Accounts with temporary deficiencies
 
The classification of an asset as NPA should be based on the record of recovery. Bank should not classify an advance account as NPA merely due to the existence of some deficiencies which are temporary in nature such as non­availability of adequate drawing power based on the latest available stock statement, balance outstanding exceeding the limit temporarily, non­submission of stock  statements  and non­renewal of the limits on the due date, etc. In the matter of classification of accounts with such deficiencies banks may follow the following guidelines:

i) Banks should ensure that drawings in the working capital accounts are covered by the adequacy of current assets, since current assets are first appropriated in times of distress. Drawing power is required to be arrived at based on the stock statement which is current. However, considering the difficulties of large borrowers, stock statements relied upon by the banks for determining drawing power should not be older than three months. The outstanding in the account based on drawing power calculated from stock statements older than three months, would be deemed as irregular.

A working capital borrowal account will become NPA if such irregular drawings are permitted in the account for a continuous period of 90 days even though the unit may be working or the borrower's financial position is satisfactory.

ii) Regular and ad hoc credit limits need to be reviewed/ regularised not later than three months from the due date/date of ad hoc sanction. In case of constraints such as non-availability of financial statements and other data from the borrowers, the branch should furnish evidence to show that renewal/ review of credit limits is already on and would be completed soon. In any case, delay beyond six months is not considered desirable as a general discipline. Hence, an account where the regular/ ad hoc credit limits have not been reviewed/ renewed within 180 days from the due date/ date of ad hoc sanction will be treated as NPA.

4.2.5 Upgradation of loan accounts classified as NPAs

If arrears of interest and principal are paid by the borrower in the case of loan accounts classified as NPAs, the account should no longer be treated as non­performing and may be classified as ‘standard’ accounts. With regard to upgradation of a restructured/ rescheduled account which is classified as NPA contents of paragraphs 11.2 and 14.2 in the Part B of this circular will be applicable.

4.2.6  Accounts regularised near about the balance sheet date

The asset classification of borrowal accounts where a solitary or a few credits are recorded before the balance sheet date should be handled with care and without scope for subjectivity. Where the account indicates inherent weakness on the basis of the data available, the account should be deemed as a NPA. In other genuine cases, the banks must furnish satisfactory evidence to the Statutory Auditors/Inspecting Officers about the manner of regularisation of the account to eliminate doubts on their performing status.

4.2.7  Asset Classification to be borrower­wise and not facility­wise

i) It is difficult to envisage a situation when only one facility to a borrower/one investment in any of the securities issued by the borrower becomes a problem credit/investment and not others. Therefore, all the facilities granted by a bank to a borrower and investment in all the securities issued by the borrower will have to be treated as NPA/NPI and not the particular facility/investment or part thereof which has become irregular.

ii) If the debits arising out of devolvement of letters of credit or invoked guarantees are parked in a separate account, the balance outstanding in that account also should be treated as a part of the borrower’s principal operating account for the purpose of application of prudential norms on income recognition, asset classification and provisioning.

iii) The bills discounted under LC favouring a borrower may not be classified as a Non-performing advance (NPA), when any other facility granted to the borrower is classified as NPA. However, in case documents under LC are not accepted on presentation or the payment under the LC is not made on the due date by the LC issuing bank for any reason and the borrower does not immediately make good the amount disbursed as a result of discounting of concerned bills, the outstanding bills discounted will immediately be classified as NPA with effect from the date when the other facilities had been classified as NPA.

iv) The overdue receivables representing positive mark-to-market value of a derivative contract will be treated as a non-performing asset, if these remain unpaid for 90 days or more. In case the overdues arising from forward contracts and plain vanilla swaps and options become NPAs, all other funded facilities granted to the client shall also be classified as non-performing asset following the principle of borrower-wise classification as per the existing asset classification norms. Accordingly, any amount, representing positive mark-to-market value of the foreign exchange derivative contracts (other than forward contract and plain vanilla swaps and options) that were entered into during the period April 2007 to June 2008, which has already crystallised or might crystallise in future and is / becomes receivable from the client, should be parked in a separate account maintained in the name of the client / counterparty. This amount, even if overdue for a period of 90 days or more, will not make other funded facilities provided to the client, NPA on account of the principle of borrower-wise asset classification, though such receivable overdue for 90 days or more shall itself be classified as NPA, as per the extant IRAC norms. The classification of all other assets of such clients will, however, continue to be governed by the extant IRAC norms.

v) If the client concerned is also a borrower of the bank enjoying a Cash Credit or Overdraft facility from the bank, the receivables mentioned at item (iv) above may be debited to that account on due date and the impact of its non-payment would be reflected in the cash credit / overdraft facility account. The principle of  borrower-wise asset classification would be applicable here also, as per extant norms.

vi) In cases where the contract provides for settlement of the current mark-to-market value of a derivative contract before its maturity, only the current credit exposure (not the potential future exposure) will be classified as a non-performing asset after an overdue period of 90 days.

vii) As the overdue receivables mentioned above would represent unrealised income already booked by the bank on accrual basis, after 90 days of overdue period, the amount already taken to 'Profit and Loss a/c' should be reversed.

4.2.8 Advances under consortium arrangements

Asset classification of accounts under consortium should be based on the record of recovery of the individual member banks and other aspects having a bearing on the recoverability of the advances. Where the remittances by the borrower under consortium lending arrangements are pooled with one bank and/or where the bank receiving remittances is not parting with the share of other member banks, the account will be treated as not serviced in the books of the other member banks and therefore, be treated as NPA. The banks participating in the consortium should, therefore, arrange to get their share of recovery transferred from the lead bank or get an express consent from the lead bank for the transfer of their share of recovery, to ensure proper asset classification in their respective books.

4.2.9  Accounts where there is erosion in the value of security/frauds committed by borrowers

In respect of accounts where there are potential threats for recovery on account of erosion in the value of security or non­availability of security and existence of other factors such as frauds committed by borrowers it will not be prudent that such accounts should go through various stages of asset classification. In cases of such serious credit impairment the asset should be straightaway classified as doubtful or loss asset as appropriate:

i. Erosion in the value of security can be reckoned as significant when the realisable value of the security is less than 50 per cent of the value assessed by the bank or accepted by RBI at the time of last inspection, as the case may be. Such NPAs may be straightaway classified under doubtful category and provisioning should be made as applicable to doubtful assets.

ii. If the realisable value of the security, as assessed by the bank/ approved valuers/ RBI is less than 10 per cent of the outstanding in the borrowal accounts, the existence of security should be ignored and the asset should be straightaway classified as loss asset. It may be either written off or fully provided for by the bank.

4.2.10 Advances to PACS/FSS ceded to Commercial Banks

In respect of agricultural advances as well as advances for other purposes granted by banks to PACS/ FSS under the on-lending system, only that particular credit facility granted to PACS/ FSS which is in default for a period of two crop seasons in case of short duration crops and one crop season in case of long duration crops, as the case may be, after it has become due will be classified as NPA and not all the credit facilities sanctioned to a PACS/ FSS. The other direct loans & advances, if any, granted by the bank to the member borrower of a PACS/ FSS outside the on­lending arrangement will become NPA even if one of the credit facilities granted to the same borrower becomes NPA.

4.2.11 Advances against Term Deposits, NSCs, KVP/IVP, etc

Advances against term deposits, NSCs eligible for surrender, IVPs, KVPs and life policies need not be treated as NPAs, provided adequate margin is available in the accounts. Advances against gold ornaments, government securities and all other securities are not covered by this exemption.

4.2.12 Loans with moratorium for payment of interest

i. In the case of bank finance given for industrial projects or for agricultural plantations etc. where moratorium is available for payment of interest, payment of interest becomes 'due' only after the moratorium or gestation period is over. Therefore, such amounts of interest do not become overdue and hence do not become NPA, with reference to the date of debit of interest. They become overdue after due date for payment of interest, if uncollected.

ii. In the case of housing loan or similar advances granted to staff members where interest is payable after recovery of principal, interest need not be considered as overdue from the first quarter onwards. Such loans/advances should be classified as NPA only when there is a default in repayment of instalment of principal or payment of interest on the respective due dates.

4.2.13 Agricultural advances

i. A loan granted for short duration crops will be treated as NPA, if the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for two crop seasons. A loan granted for long duration crops will be treated as NPA, if the instalment of principal or interest thereon remains overdue for one crop season. For the purpose of these guidelines, “long duration” crops would be crops with crop season longer than one year and crops, which are not “long duration” crops, would be treated as “short duration” crops. The crop season for each crop, which means the period up to harvesting of the crops raised, would be as determined by the State Level Bankers’ Committee in each State. Depending upon the duration of crops raised by an agriculturist, the above NPA norms would also be made applicable to agricultural term loans availed of by him.

The above norms should be made applicable to all direct agricultural advances as listed at items 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3, 1.1.4, 1.1.5, 1.1.6 and 1.2.1, 1.2.2 and 1.2.3 of Master Circular on lending to priority sector RPCD. No.Plan. BC. 2 /04.09.01/ 2009-2010 dated July 1, 2009. An extract of the list of these items is furnished in the Annex 2. In respect of agricultural loans, other than those specified in the Annex 2 and term loans given to non­agriculturists, identification of NPAs would be done on the same basis as non­agricultural advances, which, at present, is the 90 days delinquency norm.

ii. Where natural calamities impair the repaying capacity of agricultural borrowers, banks may decide on their own as a relief measure ­conversion of the short-term production loan into a term loan or re­schedulement of the repayment period; and the sanctioning of fresh short-term loan, subject to guidelines contained in RBI circular RPCD. No.PLFS.BC.6/ 05.04.02/ 2004­05 dated July 1, 2005.

iii. In such cases of conversion or re-schedulement, the term loan as well as fresh short-term loan may be treated as current dues and need not be classified as NPA. The asset classification of these loans would thereafter be governed by the revised terms & conditions and would be treated as NPA if interest and/or instalment of principal remains overdue for two crop seasons for short duration crops and for one crop season for long duration crops. For the purpose of these guidelines, "long duration" crops would be crops with crop season longer than one year and crops, which are not 'long duration" would be treated as "short duration" crops.

iv. The debts as on March 31, 2004 of farmers, who have suffered production and income losses on account of successive natural calamities, i.e., drought, flood, or other calamities which might have occurred in the districts for two or more successive years during the past five years may be rescheduled/ restructured by the banks, provided the State Government concerned has declared such districts as calamity affected. Accordingly, the interest outstanding/accrued in the accounts of such borrowers (crop loans and agriculture term loans) up to March 31, 2004 may be clubbed with the principal outstanding therein as on March 31, 2004, and the amount thus arrived at shall be repayable over a period of five years, at current interest rates, including an initial moratorium of two years. As regards the crop loans and agricultural term loans which have already been restructured on account of natural calamities as per the standing guidelines, only the overdue instalments including interest thereon as on March 31, 2004 may be taken into account for the proposed restructuring. On restructuring as above, the farmers concerned will become eligible for fresh loans. The rescheduled/restructured loans as also the fresh loans to be issued to the farmers may be treated as current dues and need not be classified as NPA. While the fresh loans would be governed by the NPA norms as applicable to agricultural loans, in case of rescheduled/restructured loans, the NPA norms would be applicable from the third year onwards, i.e., on expiry of the initial moratorium period of two years.

v. In case of Kharif crop loans in the districts affected by failure of the South­West monsoon as notified by the State Government, recovery of any amount either by way of principal or interest during the financial year 2002-03 need not be effected. Further, the principal amount of crop loans in such cases should be converted into term loans and will be recovered over a period of minimum 5 years in case of small and marginal farmers and 4 years in case of other farmers. Interest due in the financial year 2002-03 on crop loans should also be deferred and no interest should be charged on the deferred interest. In such cases of conversion or re-schedulement of crop loans into term loans, the term loans may be treated as current dues and need not be classified as NPA. The asset classification of these loans would thereafter be governed by the revised terms and conditions and would be treated as NPA if interest and / or instalment of principal remain overdue for two crop seasons.

vi. While fixing the repayment schedule in case of rural housing advances granted to agriculturists under Indira Awas Yojana and Golden Jubilee Rural Housing Finance Scheme, banks should ensure that the interest/instalment payable on such advances are linked to crop cycles.

4.2.14 Government guaranteed advances

The credit facilities backed by guarantee of the Central Government though overdue may be treated as NPA only when the Government repudiates its guarantee when invoked. This exemption from classification of Government guaranteed advances as NPA is not for the purpose of recognition of income. The requirement of invocation of guarantee has been delinked for deciding the asset classification and provisioning requirements in respect of State Government guaranteed exposures. With effect from the year ending 31 March 2006 State Government guaranteed advances and investments in State Government guaranteed securities would attract asset classification and provisioning norms if interest and/or principal or any other amount due to the bank remains overdue for more than 90 days.

4.2.15  Projects under implementation

4.2.15.1 For all projects financed by the FIs/ banks after 28th May, 2002, the date of completion of the project should be clearly spelt out at the time of financial closure of the project.

4.2.15.2 Project Loans

There are occasions when the completion of projects is delayed for legal and other extraneous reasons like delays in Government approvals etc. All these factors, which are beyond the control of the promoters, may lead to delay in project implementation and involve restructuring / reschedulement of loans by banks. Accordingly, the following asset classification norms would apply to the project loans before commencement of commercial operations. These guidelines will, however, not be applicable to restructuring of advances covered under the paragraph 14.1 of this Master Circular (Advances classified as Commercial Real Estate exposures; Advances classified as Capital Market exposure; and Consumer and Personal Advances) which will continue to be dealt with in terms of the extant provisions i.e paragraph 14.1 of the circular.

For this purpose, all project loans have been divided into the following two categories :

(a)    Project Loans for infrastructure sector

(b)    Project Loans for non-infrastructure sector

'Project Loan' would mean any term loan which has been extended for the purpose of setting up of an economic venture. Banks must fix a Date of Commencement of Commercial Operations (DCCO) for all project loans at the time of sanction of the loan / financial closure (in the case of multiple banking or consortium arrangements).

4.2.15.3        Project Loans for Infrastructure Sector

(i) A loan for an infrastructure project will be classified as NPA during any time before commencement of commercial operations as per record of recovery (90 days overdue), unless it is restructured and becomes eligible for classification as 'standard asset' in terms of paras (iii) to (v) below.

(ii) A loan for an infrastructure project will be classified as NPA if it fails to commence commercial operations within two years from the original DCCO, even if it is regular as per record of recovery, unless it is restructured and becomes eligible for classification as 'standard asset' in terms of paras (iii) to (v) below.

(iii)  If a project loan classified as 'standard asset' is restructured any time during the period up to two years from the original date of commencement of commercial operations (DCCO), in accordance with the provisions of Part B of this Master Circular, it can be retained as a standard asset if the fresh DCCO is fixed within the following limits, and further provided the account continues to be serviced as per the restructured terms.

(a) Infrastructure Projects involving court cases

Up to another 2 years (beyond the existing extended period of 2 years i.e total extension of 4 years), in case the reason for extension of date of commencement of production is arbitration proceedings or a court case.

(b)    Infrastructure Projects delayed for other reasons beyond the control of promoters

Up to another 1 year (beyond the existing extended period of 2 years i.e. total extension of 3 years), in other than court cases.

(iv) It is re-iterated that the dispensation in para 4.2.15.3 (iii) is subject to adherence to the provisions regarding restructuring of accounts as contained in the Master Circular which would inter alia require that the application for restructuring should be received before the expiry of period of two years from the original DCCO and when the account is still standard as per record of recovery. The other conditions applicable would be :

a. In cases where there is moratorium for payment of interest, banks should not book income on accrual basis beyond two years from the original DCCO, considering the high risk involved in such restructured accounts.

b. Banks should maintain provisions on such accounts as long as these are classified as standard assets as under :

Until two years from the original DCCO

0.40%

During the third and the fourth years after the original DCCO.

1.00%

(v) For the purpose of these guidelines, mere extension of DCCO will also be treated as restructuring even if all other terms and conditions remain the same.

4.2.15.4    Project Loans for Non-Infrastructure Sector

(i) A loan for a non-infrastructure project will be classified as NPA during any time before commencement of commercial operations as per record of recovery (90 days overdue), unless it is restructured and becomes eligible for classification as 'standard asset' in terms of paras (iii) to (v) below.

(ii) A loan for a non-infrastructure project will be classified as NPA if it fails to commence commercial operations within six months from the original DCCO, even if is regular as per record of recovery, unless it is restructured and becomes eligible for classification as 'standard asset' in terms of paras (iii) to (v) below.

(iii) In case of non-infrastructure projects, if the delay in commencement of commercial operations extends beyond the period of six months from the date of completion as determined at the time of financial closure, banks can prescribe a fresh DCCO, and retain the "standard" classification by undertaking restructuring of accounts in accordance with the provisions contained in this Master Circular, provided the fresh DCCO does not extend beyond a period of twelve months from the original DCCO. This would among others also imply that the restructuring application is received before the expiry of six months from the original DCCO, and when the account is still "standard" as per the record of recovery.

The other conditions applicable would be :

a. In cases where there is moratorium for payment of interest, banks should not book income on accrual basis beyond six months from the original DCCO, considering the high risk involved in such restructured accounts.

b.  Banks should maintain provisions on such accounts as long as these are classified as standard assets as under :

Until the first six months from the original DCCO

0.40%

During the next six months

1.00%

(iv) For this purpose, mere extension of DCCO will also be treated as restructuring even if all other terms and conditions remain the same.

4.2.15.5 Other Issues

(i) All other aspects of restructuring of project loans before commencement of commercial operations would be governed by the provisions of Part B of Master Circular on Prudential norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning Pertaining to Advances. Restructuring of project loans after commencement of commercial operations will also be governed by these instructions.

(ii) Any change in the repayment schedule of a project loan caused due to an increase in the project outlay on account of increase in scope and size of the project, would not be treated as restructuring if :

(a) The increase in scope and size of the project takes place before commencement of commercial operations of the existing project.

(b) The rise in cost excluding any cost-overrun in respect of the original project is 25% or more of the original outlay.

(c) The bank re-assesses the viability of the project before approving the enhancement of scope and fixing a fresh DCCP.

(d) On re-rating, (if already rated) the new rating is not below the previous rating by more than one notch.

(iii)These guidelines would apply to those cases where the modification to terms of existing loans, as indicated above, are approved by banks from the date of this circular.

4.2.15.6  Income recognition

(i) Banks may recognise income on accrual basis in respect of the projects under implementation, which are classified as ‘standard’.

(ii) Banks should not recognise income on accrual basis in respect of the projects under implementation which are classified as a ‘substandard’ asset. Banks may recognise income in such accounts only on realisation on cash basis.

Consequently, banks which have wrongly recognised income in the past should reverse the interest if it was recognised as income during the current year or make a provision for an equivalent amount if it was recognised as income in the previous year(s). As regards the regulatory treatment of ‘funded interest’ recognised as income and ‘conversion into equity, debentures or any other instrument’ banks should adopt the following:

a) Funded Interest: Income recognition in respect of the NPAs, regardless of whether these are or are not subjected to restructuring/ rescheduling/ renegotiation of terms of the loan agreement, should be done strictly on cash basis, only on realisation and not if the amount of interest overdue has been funded. If, however, the amount of funded interest is recognised as income, a provision for an equal amount should also be made simultaneously. In other words, any funding of interest in respect of NPAs, if recognised as income, should be fully provided for.

b) Conversion into equity, debentures or any other instrument: The amount outstanding converted into other instruments would normally comprise principal and the interest components. If the amount of interest dues is converted into equity or any other instrument, and income is recognised in consequence, full provision should be made for the amount of income so recognised to offset the effect of such income recognition. Such provision would be in addition to the amount of provision that may be necessary for the depreciation in the value of the equity or other instruments, as per the investment valuation norms. However, if the conversion of interest is into equity which is quoted, interest income can be recognised at market value of equity, as on the date of conversion, not exceeding the amount of interest converted to equity. Such equity must thereafter be classified in the “available for sale” category and valued at lower of cost or market value. In case of conversion of principal and /or interest in respect of NPAs into debentures, such debentures should be treated as NPA, ab initio, in the same asset classification as was applicable to loan just before conversion and provision made as per norms. This norm would also apply to zero coupon bonds or other instruments which seek to defer the liability of the issuer. On such debentures, income should be recognised only on realisation basis. The income in respect of unrealised interest which is converted into debentures or any other fixed maturity instrument should be recognised only on redemption of such instrument. Subject to the above, the equity shares or other instruments arising from conversion of the principal amount of loan would also be subject to the usual prudential valuation norms as applicable to such instruments.

4.2.15.7  Provisioning

While there will be no change in the extant norms on provisioning for NPAs, banks which are already holding provisions against some of the accounts, which   may now be classified as ‘standard’, shall continue to hold the provisions and shall not reverse the same.

4.2.16 Take­out Finance

Takeout finance is the product emerging in the context of the funding of long­term infrastructure projects. Under this arrangement, the institution/the bank financing infrastructure projects will have an arrangement with any financial institution for transferring to the latter the outstanding in respect of such financing in their books on a pre­determined basis. In view of the time­lag involved in taking-over, the possibility of a default in the meantime cannot be ruled out. The norms of asset classification will have to be followed by the concerned bank/financial institution in whose books the account stands as balance sheet item as on the relevant date. If the lending institution observes that the asset has turned NPA on the basis of the record of recovery, it should be classified accordingly. The lending institution should not recognise income on accrual basis and account for the same only when it is paid by the borrower/ taking over institution (if the arrangement so provides). The lending institution should also make provisions against any asset turning into NPA pending its take over by taking over institution. As and when the asset is taken over by the taking over institution, the corresponding provisions could be reversed. However, the taking over institution, on taking over such assets, should make provisions treating the account as NPA from the actual date of it becoming NPA even though the account was not in its books as on that date.

4.2.17 Post­shipment Supplier's Credit

i. In respect of post­shipment credit extended by the banks covering export of goods to countries for which the ECGC’s cover is available, EXIM Bank has introduced a guarantee­cum-refinance programme whereby, in the event of default, EXIM Bank will pay the guaranteed amount to the bank within a period of 30 days from the day the bank invokes the guarantee after the exporter has filed claim with ECGC.

ii. Accordingly, to the extent payment has been received from the EXIM Bank, the advance may not be treated as a non­performing asset for asset classification and provisioning purposes.

4.2.18 Export Project Finance

i. In respect of export project finance, there could be instances where the actual importer has paid the dues to the bank abroad but the bank in turn is unable to remit the amount due to political developments such as war, strife, UN embargo, etc.

ii. In such cases, where the lending bank is able to establish through documentary evidence that the importer has cleared the dues in full by depositing the amount in the bank abroad before it turned into NPA in the books of the bank, but the importer's country is not allowing the funds to be remitted due to political or other reasons, the asset classification may be made after a period of one year from the date the amount was deposited by the importer in the bank abroad.

4.2.19 Advances under rehabilitation approved by BIFR/ TLI

Banks are not permitted to upgrade the classification of any advance in respect of which the terms have been re­negotiated unless the package of re­negotiated terms has worked satisfactorily for a period of one year. While the existing credit facilities sanctioned to a unit under rehabilitation packages approved by BIFR/term lending institutions will continue to be classified as sub­standard or doubtful as the case may be, in respect of additional facilities sanctioned under the rehabilitation packages, the Income Recognition, Asset Classification norms will become applicable after a period of one year from the date of disbursement.

5 PROVISIONING NORMS

5.1 General

5.1.1 The primary responsibility for making adequate provisions for any diminution in the value of loan assets, investment or other assets is that of the bank managements and the statutory auditors. The assessment made by the inspecting officer of the RBI is furnished to the bank to assist the bank management and the statutory auditors in taking a decision in regard to making adequate and necessary provisions in terms of prudential guidelines.

5.1.2 In conformity with the prudential norms, provisions should be made on the non­performing assets on the basis of classification of assets into prescribed categories as detailed in paragraphs 4 supra. Taking into account the time lag between an account becoming doubtful of recovery, its recognition as such, the realisation of the security and the erosion over time in the value of security charged to the bank, the banks should make provision against sub­standard assets, doubtful assets and loss assets as below:

5.2 Loss assets

Loss assets should be written off. If loss assets are permitted to remain in the books for any reason, 100 percent of the outstanding should be provided for.

5.3 Doubtful assets

i. 100 percent of the extent to which the advance is not covered by the realisable value of the security to which the bank has a valid recourse and the realisable value is estimated on a realistic basis.

ii. In regard to the secured portion, provision may be made on the following basis, at the rates ranging from 20 percent to 100 percent of the secured portion depending upon the period for which the asset has remained doubtful:

Period for which the advance has
remained in ‘doubtful’ category

Provision requirement (%)

Up to one year

20

One to three years

30

More than three years

100

Note: Valuation of Security for provisioning purposes

With a view to bringing down divergence arising out of difference in assessment of the value of security, in cases of NPAs with balance of Rs. 5 crore and above stock audit at annual intervals by external agencies appointed as per the guidelines approved by the Board would be mandatory in order to enhance the reliability on stock valuation. Collaterals such as immovable properties charged in favour of the bank should be got valued once in three years by valuers appointed as per the guidelines approved by the Board of Directors.

5.4 Sub­standard assets

(i) A general provision of 10 percent on total outstanding should be made without making any allowance for ECGC guarantee cover and securities available.

(ii) The ‘unsecured exposures’ which are identified as ‘substandard’ would attract additional provision of 10 per cent, i.e., a total of 20 per cent on the outstanding balance. However, in view of certain safeguards such as escrow accounts available in respect of infrastructure lending, infrastructure loan accounts which are classified as sub-standard will attract a provisioning of 15 per cent instead of the aforesaid prescription of 20 per cent. To avail of this benefit of lower provisioning, the banks should have in place an appropriate mechanism to escrow the cash flows and also have a clear and legal first claim on these cash flows. The provisioning requirement for unsecured ‘doubtful’ assets is 100 per cent. Unsecured exposure is defined as an exposure where the realisable value of the security, as assessed by the bank/approved valuers/Reserve Bank’s inspecting officers, is not more than 10 percent, ab-initio, of the outstanding exposure. ‘Exposure’ shall include all funded and non-funded exposures (including underwriting and similar commitments). ‘Security’ will mean tangible security properly discharged to the bank and will not include intangible securities like guarantees (including State government guarantees), comfort letters etc.

(iii) In order to enhance transparency and ensure correct reflection of the unsecured advances in Schedule 9 of the banks' balance sheet, it is advised that the following would be applicable from the financial year 2009-10 onwards :

a) For determining the amount of unsecured advances for reflecting in schedule 9 of the published balance sheet, the rights, licenses, authorisations, etc., charged to the banks as collateral in respect of projects (including infrastructure projects) financed by them, should not be reckoned as tangible security. Hence such advances shall be reckoned as unsecured.

b) However, banks may treat annuities under build-operate-transfer (BOT) model in respect of road / highway projects and toll collection rights, where there are provisions to compensate the project sponsor if a certain level of traffic is not achieved, as tangible securities subject to the condition that banks' right to receive annuities and toll collection rights is legally enforceable and irrevocable.

b)  Banks should also disclose the total amount of advances for which intangible securities such as charge over the rights, licenses, authority, etc. has been taken as also the estimated value of such intangible collateral. The disclosure may be made under a separate head in "Notes to Accounts". This would differentiate such loans from other entirely unsecured loans.

5.5  Standard assets

(i) The provisioning requirements for all types of standard assets stands amended as below, with effect from November 5, 2009. Banks should make general provision for standard assets at the following rates for the funded outstanding on global loan portfolio basis:

(a) direct advances to agricultural and SME sectors at 0.25 per cent;

(b)  advances to Commercial Real Estate (CRE) Sector at 1.00 per cent;

(c) all other loans and advances  not included in (a) and (b) above at 0.40 per cent

(ii) The revised norms would be effective prospectively but the provisions held at present should not be reversed. However, in future, if by applying the revised provisioning norms, any provisions are required over and above the level of provisions currently held for the standard category assets, these should be duly provided for.

(iii) While the provisions on individual portfolios are required to be calculated at the rates applicable to them, the excess or shortfall in the provisioning, vis-a-vis the position as on any previous date, should be determined on an aggregate basis. If the provisions on an aggregate basis required  to be held with effect from November 5, 2009 are less than the provisions already held, the provisions rendered surplus should not be reversed to P&L and should continue to be maintained at the existing level. In case of shortfall determined on aggregate basis, the balance should be provided for by debit to P&L.

(iv) The provisions on standard assets should not be reckoned for arriving at net NPAs.

(v) The provisions towards Standard Assets need not be netted from gross advances but shown separately as 'Contingent Provisions against Standard Assets' under 'Other Liabilities and Provisions ­Others' in Schedule 5 of the balance sheet.

5.6 Prudential norms on creation and utilisation of floating provisions

5.6.1 Principle for creation of floating provisions by banks

The bank's board of directors should lay down approved policy regarding the level to which the floating provisions can be created. The bank should hold floating provisions for ‘advances’ and ‘investments’ separately and the guidelines prescribed will be applicable to floating provisions held for both ‘advances’ & ‘investment’ portfolios.

5.6.2  Principle for utilisation of floating provisions by banks

i. The floating provisions should not be used for making specific provisions as per the extant prudential guidelines in respect of non­performing assets or for making regulatory provisions for standard assets. The floating provisions can be used only for contingencies under extraordinary circumstances for making   specific provisions in impaired accounts after obtaining board’s approval and with prior permission of RBI. The boards of the banks should lay down an approved policy as to what circumstances would be considered extraordinary.

ii. To facilitate banks' boards to evolve suitable policies in this regard, it is clarified that the extra-ordinary circumstances refer to losses which do not arise in the normal course of business and are exceptional and non-recurring in nature. These extra-ordinary circumstances could broadly fall under three categories viz. General, Market and Credit. Under general category, there can be situations where bank is put unexpectedly to loss due to events such as civil unrest or collapse of currency in a country. Natural calamities and pandemics may also be included in the general category. Market category would include events such as a general melt down in the markets, which affects the entire financial system. Among the credit category, only exceptional credit losses would be considered as an extra-ordinary circumstance.

iii. In terms of the Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008, lending institutions shall neither claim from the Central Government, nor recover from the farmer, interest in excess of the principal amount, unapplied interest, penal interest, legal charges, inspection charges and miscellaneous charges, etc. All such interest / charges will be borne by the lending institutions. In view of the extraordinary circumstances in which the banks are required to bear such  interest / charges, banks are allowed, as a one time measure, to utilise, at their discretion, the Floating Provisions held for 'advances' portfolio, only to the extent of meeting the interest / charges referred to above.

5.6.3  Accounting

Floating provisions cannot be reversed by credit to the profit and loss account. They can only be utilised for making specific provisions in extraordinary circumstances as mentioned above. Until such utilisation, these provisions can be netted off from gross NPAs to arrive at disclosure of net NPAs. Alternatively, they can be treated as part of Tier II capital within the overall ceiling of 1.25 % of total risk weighted assets.

5.6.4 Disclosures

Banks should make comprehensive disclosures on floating provisions in the “notes on accounts” to the balance sheet on (a) opening balance in the floating provisions account, (b) the quantum of floating provisions made in the accounting year, (c) purpose and amount of draw down made during the accounting year, and (d) closing balance in the floating provisions account.

5.7  Additional Provisions for NPAs at higher than prescribed rates

The regulatory norms for provisioning represent the minimum requirement.  A bank may voluntarily make specific provisions for advances at rates which are higher than the rates prescribed under existing regulations, to provide for estimated actual loss in collectible amount, provided such higher rates are approved by the Board of Directors and consistently adopted from year to year. Such additional provisions are not to be considered as floating provisions. The additional provisions for NPAs, like the minimum regulatory provision on NPAs, may be netted off from gross NPAs to arrive at the net NPAs

5.8 Provisions on Leased Assets

i) Sub­standard assets

a) 10 percent of the sum of the net investment in the lease and the unrealised portion of finance income net of finance charge component. The terms ‘net investment in the lease’, ‘finance income’ and ‘finance charge’ are as defined in ‘AS 19 ­Leases’ issued by the ICAI.

b) Unsecured lease exposures, as defined in paragraph 5.4 above, which are identified as ‘substandard’ would attract additional provision of 10 per cent, i.e., a total of 20 per cent.

ii) Doubtful assets

100 percent of the extent to which, the finance is not secured by the realisable value of the leased asset. Realisable value is to be estimated on a realistic basis. In addition to the above provision, provision at the following rates should be made on the sum of the net investment in the lease and the unrealised portion of finance income net of finance charge component of the secured portion, depending upon the period for which asset has been doubtful:

Period for which the advance has
remained in ‘doubtful’ category

Provision requirement (%)

Up to one year

20

One to three years

30

More than three years

100

iii) Loss assets

The entire asset should be written off. If for any reason, an asset is allowed to remain in books, 100 percent of the sum of the net investment in the lease and the unrealised portion of finance income net of finance charge component should be provided for.

5.9  Guidelines for Provisions under Special Circumstances

5.9.1    Advances granted under rehabilitation packages approved by BIFR/term lending institutions

(i) In respect of advances under rehabilitation package approved by BIFR/term lending institutions, the provision should continue to be made in respect of dues to the bank on the existing credit facilities as per their classification as sub­standard or doubtful asset.

(ii) As regards the additional facilities sanctioned as per package finalised by BIFR and/or term lending institutions, provision on additional facilities sanctioned need not be made for a period of one year from the date of disbursement.

(iii) In respect of additional credit facilities granted to SSI units which are identified as sick [as defined in Section IV (Para 2.8) of RPCD circular RPCD.PLNFS.BC. No 83 /06.02.31/2004­2005 dated 1 March 2005] and where rehabilitation packages/nursing programmes have been drawn by the banks themselves or under consortium arrangements, no provision need be made for a period of one year.

5.9.2 Advances against term deposits, NSCs eligible for surrender, IVPs, KVPs, gold ornaments, government & other securities and life insurance policies would attract provisioning requirements as applicable to their asset classification status.

5.9.3 Treatment of interest suspense account

Amounts held in Interest Suspense Account should not be reckoned as part of provisions. Amounts lying in the Interest Suspense Account should be deducted from the relative advances and thereafter, provisioning as per the norms, should be made on the balances after such deduction.

5.9.4    Advances covered by ECGC guarantee

In the case of advances classified as doubtful and guaranteed by ECGC, provision should be made only for the balance in excess of the amount guaranteed by the Corporation. Further, while arriving at the provision required to be made for doubtful assets, realisable value of the securities should first be deducted from the outstanding balance in respect of the amount guaranteed by the Corporation and then provision made as illustrated hereunder:

Example

Outstanding Balance

Rs. 4 lakhs

ECGC Cover

50 percent

Period for which the advance has remained doubtful

More than 3 years remained doubtful (as on March 31, 2004)

Value of security held
(excludes worth of Rs.)

Rs. 1.50 lakhs

Provision required to be made

Outstanding balance

Rs. 4.00 lakhs

Less: Value of security held

Rs. 1.50 lakhs

Unrealised balance

Rs. 2.50 lakhs

Less: ECGC Cover
(50% of unrealisable balance)

Rs. 1.25 lakhs

Net unsecured balance

Rs. 1.25 lakhs

Provision for unsecured portion of  advance

Rs. 1.25 lakhs (@ 100 percent of unsecured portion)

Provision for secured portion of advance (as on March 31, 2005)

Rs.0.90 lakhs (@ 60 per cent of the secured portion)

Total provision to be made

Rs.2.15 lakhs (as on March 31, 2005)

5.9.5  Advance covered by CGTSI guarantee

In case the advance covered by CGTSI guarantee becomes non­performing, no provision need be made towards the guaranteed portion. The amount outstanding in excess of the guaranteed portion should be provided for as per the extant guidelines on provisioning for non­performing advances. Two illustrative examples are given below:

Example I

Asset classification status:

Doubtful – More than 3 years (as on March 31, 2004)

CGTSI Cover

75% of the amount outstanding or 75% of the unsecured amount or Rs.18.75 lakh, whichever is the least

Realisable value of Security

Rs.1.50 lakh

 

Balance outstanding

Rs.10.00 lakh

 

Less Realisable value of security

Rs. 1.50 lakh

 

Unsecured amount

Rs. 8.50 lakh

 

Less CGTSI cover (75%)

Rs. 6.38 lakh

 

Net unsecured and uncovered portion:

Rs. 2.12 lakh

 

 

 

Provision Required (as on March 31, 2005)

Secured portion

Rs.1.50 lakh

Rs. 0.90 lakh (@ 60%)

Unsecured & uncovered portion

Rs.2.12 lakh

Rs. 2.12 lakh (100%)

Total provision required

 

Rs. 3.02 lakh

Example II

Asset classification status

Doubtful – More than 3 years (as on March 31, 2005)

CGTSI Cover

75% of the amount outstanding or 75% of the unsecured amount or Rs.18.75 lakh, whichever is the least

Realisable value of Security

Rs.10.00 lakh

 

Balance outstanding

Rs.40.00 lakh

 

Less Realisable value of security

Rs. 10.00 lakh

 

Unsecured amount

Rs. 30.00 lakh

 

Less CGTSI cover (75%)

Rs. 18.75 lakh

 

Net unsecured and
uncovered portion:

Rs. 11.25 lakh

 

 

 

Provision Required
(as on March 31, 2005)

 

 

Secured portion

Rs.10.00 lakh

Rs. 10.00 lakh (@ 100%)

Unsecured & uncovered
portion

Rs.11.25 lakh

Rs.11.25 lakh (100%)

Total provision required

 

Rs. 21.25 lakh

5.9.6    Take­out finance
The lending institution should make provisions against a 'take­out finance' turning into NPA pending its take­over by the taking­over institution. As and when the asset is taken-over by the taking­over institution, the corresponding provisions could be reversed.

5.9.7 Reserve for Exchange Rate Fluctuations Account (RERFA)
When exchange rate movements of Indian rupee turn adverse, the outstanding amount of foreign currency denominated loans (where actual disbursement was made in Indian Rupee) which becomes overdue, goes up correspondingly, with its attendant implications of provisioning requirements. Such assets should not normally be revalued. In case such assets need to be revalued as per requirement of accounting practices or for any other requirement, the following procedure may be adopted:

  • The loss on revaluation of assets has to be booked in the bank's  Profit & Loss Account.

  • Besides the provisioning requirement as per Asset Classification, banks should treat the full amount of the Revaluation Gain relating to the corresponding assets, if any, on account of Foreign Exchange Fluctuation as provision against the particular assets.

5.9.8 Provisioning for country risk

Banks shall make provisions, with effect from the year ending 31 March 2003, on the net funded country exposures on a graded scale ranging from 0.25 to 100 percent according to the risk categories mentioned below. To begin with, banks shall make provisions as per the following schedule:

Risk category

ECGC Classification

Provisioning Requirement (per cent)

Insignificant

A1

0.25

Low

A2

0.25

Moderate

B1

5

High

B2

20

Very high

C1

25

Restricted

C2

100

Off­credit

D

100

Banks are required to make provision for country risk in respect of a country where its net funded exposure is one per cent or more of its total assets.

The provision for country risk shall be in addition to the provisions required to be held according to the asset classification status of the asset. In the case of ‘loss assets’ and ‘doubtful assets’, provision held, including provision held for country risk, may not exceed 100% of the outstanding.

Banks may not make any provision for ‘home country’ exposures i.e. exposure to India. The exposures of foreign branches of Indian banks to the host country should be included. Foreign banks shall compute the country exposures of their Indian branches and shall hold appropriate provisions in their Indian books. However, their exposures to India will be excluded.

Banks may make a lower level of provisioning (say 25% of the requirement) in respect of short­term exposures (i.e. exposures with contractual maturity of less than 180 days).

5.9.9  Excess Provisions on sale of Standard Asset / NPAs

(a) If the sale is in respect of Standard Asset and the sale consideration is higher than the book value, the excess provisions may be credited to Profit and Loss Account.

(b) Excess provisions which arise on sale of NPAs can be admitted as Tier II capital subject to the overall ceiling of 1.25% of total Risk Weighted Assets. Accordingly, these excess provisions that arise on sale of NPAs would be eligible for Tier II status in terms of paragraph 4.3.2 of Master Circular DBOD.No.BP.BC.73/21.06.001/2009-10 dated February 8, 2010 on Prudential guidelines on Capital Adequacy and Market Discipline - New Capital Adequacy Framework (NCAF) and paragraph 2.1.1.2.C of Master Circular DBOD.No.BP.BC.6/21.01.002/2009-10   dated July 1, 2009 on Prudential Norms on Capital adequacy - Basel I Framework.

5.9.10 Provisions for Diminution of Fair Value

Provisions for diminution of fair value of restructured advances, both in respect of Standard Assets as well as NPAs, made on account of reduction in rate of interest and / or reschedulement of principal amount are permitted to be netted from the relative asset.

5.9.11  Provisioning norms for Liquidity facility provided for Securitisation transactions

The amount of liquidity facility drawn and outstanding for more than 90 days, in respect of securitisation transactions undertaken in terms of our guidelines on securitisation dated February 1, 2006, should be fully provided for.

5.9.12  Provisioning requirements for derivative exposures

Credit exposures computed as per the current marked to market value of the contract, arising on account of the interest rate & foreign exchange derivative transactions, and gold, shall also attract provisioning requirement as applicable to the loan assets in the 'standard' category, of the concerned counterparties. All conditions applicable for treatment of the provisions for standard assets would also apply to the aforesaid provisions for derivative and gold exposures.

5.10 Provisioning Coverage Ratio

i. At present, the provisioning requirements for NPAs range between 10 per cent and 100 per cent of the outstanding amount, depending on the age of the NPAs and the security available. Banks can also make additional specific provisions subject to a consistent policy based on riskiness of their credit portfolios, because the rates of provisioning stipulated for NPAs are the regulatory minimum. It has been observed that there is a wide heterogeneity and variance in the level of provisioning coverage ratio across different banks.

ii. Currently there is a realisation from a macro-prudential perspective that banks should build up provisioning and capital buffers in good times i.e. when the profits are good, which can be used for absorbing losses in a downturn. With this in view, there is a need for improving the provisioning cover as the banking system is currently making good profits. This will enhance the soundness of individual banks, as also the stability of the financial sector. It has therefore been decided that banks should augment their provisioning cushions consisting of specific provisions against NPAs as well as floating provisions, and ensure that their total provisioning coverage ratio, including floating provisions, is not less than 70 per cent.

iii. Provisioning Coverage Ratio (PCR) is essentially the ratio of provisioning to gross non-performing assets and indicates the extent of funds a bank has kept aside to cover loan losses. Banks are advised to compute the PCR as per the format given in Annex – 3.

iv. Banks should achieve this norm not later than end-September 2010. Also, the PCR should be disclosed in the Notes to Accounts to the Balance Sheet.

6. Guidelines on sale of financial assets to Securitisation Company (SC)/ Reconstruction Company (RC) (created under the Securitisation and    Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act,2002) and related issues

6.1  Scope

These guidelines would be applicable to sale of financial assets enumerated in paragraph 6.3 below, by banks/ FIs, for asset reconstruction/ securitisation under the Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002.

6.2  Structure

The guidelines to be followed by banks/ FIs while selling their financial assets to SC/RC under the Act ibid and investing in bonds/ debentures/ security receipts offered by the SC/RC are given below. The prudential guidelines have been grouped under the following headings:

i) Financial assets which can be sold.

ii) Procedure for sale of banks’/ FIs’ financial assets to SC/ RC, including valuation and pricing aspects.

iii) Prudential norms, in the following areas, for banks/ FIs for sale of their financial assets to SC/ RC and for investing in bonds/ debentures/ security receipts and any other securities offered by the SC/RC as compensation consequent upon sale of financial assets:

a) Provisioning / Valuation norms

b) Capital adequacy norms

c) Exposure norms

iv) Disclosure requirements

6.3 Financial assets which can be sold

A financial asset may be sold to the SC/RC by any bank/ FI where the asset is:

i) A NPA, including a non-performing bond/ debenture, and

ii) A Standard Asset where:

(a) the asset is under consortium/ multiple banking arrangements,

(b) at least 75% by value of the asset is classified as non-performing asset in the books of other banks/FIs, and

(c) at least 75% (by value) of the banks / FIs who are under theconsortium / multiple banking arrangements agree to the sale of the asset to SC/RC.

6.4. Procedure for sale of banks’/ FIs’ financial assets to SC/ RC, including valuation and pricing aspects

(a) The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002 (SARFAESI Act) allows acquisition of financial assets by SC/RC from any bank/ FI on such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon between them. This provides for sale of the financial assets on ‘without recourse’ basis, i.e., with the entire credit risk associated with the financial assets being transferred to SC/ RC, as well as on ‘with recourse’ basis, i.e., subject to unrealized part of the asset reverting to the seller bank/ FI. Banks/ FIs are, however, directed to ensure that the effect of the sale of the financial assets should be such that the asset is taken off the books of the bank/ FI and after the sale there should not be any known liability devolving on the banks/ FIs.

(b) Banks/ FIs, which propose to sell to SC/RC their financial assets should ensure that the sale is conducted in a prudent manner in accordance with a policy approved by the Board. The Board shall lay down policies and guidelines covering, inter alia,

i. Financial assets to be sold;

ii. Norms and procedure for sale of such financial assets;

iii. Valuation procedure to be followed to ensure that the realisable value of financial assets is reasonably estimated;

iv. Delegation of powers of various functionaries for taking decision on the sale of the financial assets; etc.

(c) Banks/ FIs should ensure that subsequent to sale of the financial assets to SC/RC, they do not assume any operational, legal or any other type of risks relating to the financial assets sold.

(d) (i) Each bank / FI will make its own assessment of the value offered by the SC / RC for the financial asset and decide whether to accept or reject the offer.

(ii) In the case of consortium / multiple banking arrangements, if 75% (by value) of the banks / FIs decide to accept the offer, the remaining banks / FIs will be obligated to accept the offer.

(iii) Under no circumstances can a transfer to the SC/ RC be made at a contingent price whereby in the event of shortfall in the realization by the SC/RC, the banks/ FIs would have to bear a part of the shortfall.

(e) Banks/ FIs may receive cash or bonds or debentures as sale consideration for the financial assets sold to SC/RC.

(f) Bonds/ debentures received by banks/ FIs as sale consideration towards sale of financial assets to SC/RC will be classified as investments in the books of banks/ FIs.

(g) Banks may also invest in security receipts, Pass-through certificates (PTC), or other bonds/ debentures issued by SC/RC. These securities will also be classified as investments in the books of banks/ FIs.

(h) In cases of specific financial assets, where it is considered necessary, banks/ FIs may enter into agreement with SC/RC to share, in an agreed proportion, any surplus realised by SC/RC on the eventual realisation of the concerned asset. In such cases the terms of sale should provide for a report from the SC/RC to the bank/ FI on the value realised from the asset. No credit for the expected profit will be taken by banks/ FIs until the profit materializes on actual sale.

6.5. Prudential norms for banks/ FIs for the sale transactions

(A) Provisioning/ valuation norms

(a) (i) When a bank / FI sells its financial assets to SC/ RC, on transfer the same will be removed from its books.

(ii) If the sale to SC/ RC is at a price below the net book value (NBV) (i.e., book value less provisions held), the shortfall should be debited  to the profit and loss account of that year.

(iii) If the sale is for a value higher than the NBV, the excess provision will not be reversed but will be utilized to meet the shortfall/ loss on account of sale of other financial assets to SC/RC.

(iv) When banks/ FIs invest in the security receipts/ pass-through certificates issued by SC/RC in respect of the financial assets sold by them to the SC/RC, the sale shall be recognised in books of the banks / FIs at the lower of:

  • the redemption value of the security receipts/ pass-through certificates, and

  • the NBV of the financial asset.

The above investment should be carried in the books of the bank / FI at the price as determined above until its sale or realization, and on such sale or realization, the loss or gain must be dealt with in the same manner as at (ii) and (iii) above.

(b) The securities (bonds and debentures) offered by SC / RC should satisfy the following conditions:

(i) The securities must not have a term in excess of six years.

(ii) The securities must carry a rate of interest which is not lower than 1.5% above the Bank Rate in force at the time of issue.

(iii) The securities must be secured by an appropriate charge on the assets transferred.

(iv) The securities must provide for part or full prepayment in the event the SC / RC sells the asset securing the security before the maturity date of the security.

(v). The commitment of the SC / RC to redeem the securities must be unconditional and not linked to the realization of the assets.

(vi) Whenever the security is transferred to any other party, notice of transfer should be issued to the SC/ RC.

(c) Investment in debentures/ bonds/ security receipts/ Pass-through certificates issued by SC/ RC

All instruments received by banks/FIs from SC/RC as sale consideration for financial assets sold to them and also other instruments issued by SC/ RC in which banks/ FIs invest will be in the nature of non SLR securities. Accordingly, the valuation, classification and other norms applicable to investment in non-SLR instruments prescribed by RBI from time to time would be applicable to bank’s/ FI’s investment in debentures/ bonds/ security receipts/PTCs issued by SC/ RC. However, if any of the above instruments issued by SC/RC is limited to the actual realisation of the financial assets assigned to the instruments in the concerned scheme the bank/ FI shall reckon the Net Asset Value (NAV), obtained from SC/RC from time to time, for valuation of such investments.
           
(B)  Exposure Norms

Banks’/ FIs’ investments in debentures/ bonds/ security receipts/PTCs issued by a SC/RC will constitute exposure on the SC/RC. As only a few SC/RC are being set up now, banks’/ FIs’ exposure on SC/RC through their investments in debentures/ bonds/security receipts/PTCs issued by the SC/ RC may go beyond their prudential exposure ceiling. In view of the extra ordinary nature of event, banks/ FIs will be allowed, in the initial years, to exceed prudential exposure ceiling on a case-to-case basis.

6.6.  Disclosure Requirements

Banks/ FIs, which sell their financial assets to an SC/ RC, shall be required to make the following disclosures in the Notes on Accounts to their Balance sheets:

Details of financial assets sold during the year to SC/RC for Asset Reconstruction

a. No. of accounts

b. Aggregate value (net of provisions) of accounts sold to SC / RC

c. Aggregate consideration

d. Additional consideration realized in respect of accounts transferred in earlier years

e. Aggregate gain / loss over net book value.

6.7. Related Issues

(a) SC/ RC will also take over financial assets which cannot be revived and which, therefore, will have to be disposed of on a realisation basis. Normally the SC/ RC will not take over these assets but act as an agent for recovery for which it will charge a fee.

(b) Where the assets fall in the above category, the assets will not be removed from the books of the bank/ FI but realisations as and when received will be    credited to the asset account. Provisioning for the asset will continue to be made by the bank / FI in the normal course.

7. Guidelines on purchase/ sale of Non - Performing Financial Assets

In order to increase the options available to banks for resolving their non performing assets and to develop a healthy secondary market for non­performing assets, where securitisation companies and reconstruction companies are not involved, guidelines have been issued to banks on purchase / sale of Non­Performing Assets. Since the sale/purchase of non­performing financial assets under this option would be conducted within the financial system the whole process of resolving the non performing assets and matters related thereto has to be initiated with due diligence and care warranting the existence of a set of clear guidelines which shall be complied with by all entities so that the process of resolving non­performing assets by sale and purchase of NPAs proceeds on smooth and sound lines. Accordingly guidelines on sale/purchase of non­performing assets have been formulated and furnished below. The guidelines may be placed before the bank's /FI's /NBFC's Board and appropriate steps may be taken for their implementation.

Scope

7.1 These guidelines would be applicable to banks, FIs and NBFCs purchasing/ selling non performing financial assets, from/ to other banks/FIs/NBFCs (excluding securitisation companies/ reconstruction companies).

7.2 A financial asset, including assets under multiple/consortium banking arrangements, would be eligible for purchase/sale in terms of these guidelines if it is a non­performing asset/non performing investment in the books of the selling bank.

7.3 The reference to ‘bank’ in the guidelines on purchase/sale of non­performing financial assets would include financial institutions and NBFCs.

Structure

7.4 The guidelines to be followed by banks purchasing/ selling non­performing financial assets from / to other banks are given below. The guidelines have been grouped under the following headings:

i) Procedure for purchase/ sale of non performing financial assets by banks, including valuation and pricing aspects.
ii) Prudential norms, in the following areas, for banks for purchase/ sale of  non performing financial assets:

a) Asset classification norms
b) Provisioning norms
c) Accounting of recoveries
d) Capital adequacy norms
e) Exposure norms

iii) Disclosure requirements

7.5 Procedure for purchase/ sale of non performing financial assets, including valuation and pricing aspects

i)  A bank which is purchasing/ selling non­performing financial assets should ensure that the purchase/ sale is conducted in accordance with a policy approved by the Board. The Board shall lay down policies and guidelines covering, inter alia,

a) Non performing financial assets that may be purchased/ sold;

b) Norms and procedure for purchase/ sale of such financial assets;

c) Valuation procedure to be followed to ensure that the economic value   of financial assets is reasonably estimated based on the estimated cash flows arising out of repayments and recovery  prospects;

d) Delegation of powers of various functionaries for taking decision on the purchase/ sale of the financial assets; etc.

e)  Accounting policy

ii) While laying down the policy, the Board shall satisfy itself that the bank has adequate skills to purchase non performing financial assets and deal with them in an efficient manner which will result in value addition to the bank. The Board should also ensure that appropriate systems and procedures are in place to effectively address the risks that a purchasing bank would assume while engaging in this activity.

iii) Banks should, while selling NPAs, work out the net present value of the estimated cash flows associated with the realisable value of the available securities net of the cost of realisation. The sale price should generally not be lower than the net present value arrived at in the manner described above. (Same principle should be used in compromise settlements. As the payment of the compromise amount may be in instalments, the net present value of the settlement amount should be calculated and this amount should generally not be less than the net present value of the realisable value of securities.)

iv) The estimated cash flows are normally expected to be realised within a period of three years and at least 10% of the estimated cash flows should be realized in the first year and at least 5% in each half year thereafter, subject to full recovery within three years.

v) A bank may purchase/sell non­performing financial assets from/to other banks only on ‘without recourse’ basis, i.e., the entire credit risk associated with the non­performing financial assets should be transferred to the purchasing bank. Selling bank shall ensure that the effect of the sale of the financial assets should be such that the asset is taken off the books of the bank and after the sale there should not be any known liability devolving on the selling bank.

vi) Banks should ensure that subsequent to sale of the non performing financial assets to other banks, they do not have any involvement with reference to assets sold and do not assume operational, legal or any other type of risks relating to the financial assets sold. Consequently, the specific financial asset should not enjoy the support of credit enhancements / liquidity facilities in any form or manner.

vii) Each bank will make its own assessment of the value offered by the purchasing bank for the financial asset and decide whether to accept or reject the offer.

viii) Under no circumstances can a sale to other banks be made at a contingent price whereby in the event of shortfall in the realization by the purchasing banks, the selling banks would have to bear a part of the shortfall.

ix) A non­performing asset in the books of a bank shall be eligible for sale to other banks only if it has remained a non­performing asset for at least two years in the books of the selling bank.

x) Banks shall sell non­performing financial assets to other banks only on cash basis. The entire sale consideration should be received upfront and the asset can be taken out of the books of the selling bank only on receipt of the entire sale consideration.

xi) A non­performing financial asset should be held by the purchasing bank in its books at least for a period of 15 months before it is sold to other banks. Banks should not sell such assets back to the bank, which had sold the NPFA.

(xii) Banks are also permitted to sell/buy homogeneous pool within retail non­performing financial assets, on a portfolio basis provided each of the non­performing financial assets of the pool has remained as non­performing financial asset for at least 2 years in the books of the selling bank. The pool of assets would be treated as a single asset in the books of the purchasing bank.

xiii) The selling bank shall pursue the staff accountability aspects as per the existing instructions in respect of the non­performing assets sold to other banks.

7.6.  Prudential norms for banks for the purchase/ sale transactions

(A) Asset classification norms

(i) The non­performing financial asset purchased, may be classified as ‘standard’ in the books of the purchasing bank for a period of 90 days from the date of purchase. Thereafter, the asset classification status of the financial asset purchased, shall be determined by the record of recovery in the books of the purchasing bank with reference to cash flows estimated while purchasing the asset which should be in compliance with requirements in Para 7.5 (iv).

(ii) The asset classification status of an existing exposure (other than purchased financial asset) to the same obligor in the books of the purchasing bank will continue to be governed by the record of recovery of that exposure and hence may be different.

(iii) Where the purchase/sale does not satisfy any of the prudential requirements prescribed in these guidelines the asset classification status of the financial asset in the books of the purchasing bank at the time of purchase shall be the same as in the books of the selling bank. Thereafter, the asset classification status will continue to be determined with reference to the date of NPA in the selling bank.

(iv) Any restructure/reschedule/rephrase of the repayment schedule or the estimated cash flow of the non­performing financial asset by the purchasing bank shall render the account as a non­performing asset.

(B)  Provisioning norms

Books of selling bank

i) When a bank sells its non­performing financial assets to other banks, the same will be removed from its books on transfer.

ii) If the sale is at a price below the net book value (NBV) (i.e., book value less provisions held), the shortfall should be debited to the profit and loss account of that year.
           
iii) If the sale is for a value higher than the NBV, the excess provision shall not be reversed but will be utilised to meet the shortfall/ loss on account of sale of other nonperforming financial assets.

Books of purchasing bank
           
The asset shall attract provisioning requirement appropriate to its asset classification status in the books of the purchasing bank.
           
(C)  Accounting of recoveries

Any recovery in respect of a non­performing asset purchased from other banks should first be adjusted against its acquisition cost. Recoveries in excess of the acquisition cost can be recognised as profit.

(D) Capital Adequacy

For the purpose of capital adequacy, banks should assign 100% risk weights to the non­performing financial assets purchased from other banks. In case the non­performing asset purchased is an investment, then it would attract capital charge for market risks also. For NBFCs the relevant instructions on capital adequacy would be applicable.

(E) Exposure Norms

The purchasing bank will reckon exposure on the obligor of the specific financial asset. Hence these banks should ensure compliance with the prudential credit exposure ceilings (both single and group) after reckoning the exposures to the obligors arising on account of the purchase. For NBFCs the relevant instructions on exposure norms would be applicable.

7.7. Disclosure Requirements

Banks which purchase non­performing financial assets from other banks shall be required to make the following disclosures in the Notes on Accounts to their Balance sheets:

A.  Details of non­performing financial assets purchased:

(Amounts in Rupees crore)

1. (a) No. of accounts purchased during the year
(b) Aggregate outstanding

2.  (a) Of these, number of accounts restructured during the year
(b) Aggregate outstanding

B. Details of non­performing financial assets sold:

(Amounts in Rupees crore)

1. No. of accounts sold
2. Aggregate outstanding
3. Aggregate consideration received

C.The purchasing bank shall furnish all relevant reports to RBI, CIBIL etc. in respect of the non­performing financial assets purchased by it.

8. Writing off of NPAs

8.1 In terms of Section 43(D) of the Income Tax Act 1961, income by way of interest in relation to such categories of bad and doubtful debts as may be prescribed having regard to the guidelines issued by the RBI in relation to such debts, shall be chargeable to tax in the previous year in which it is credited to the bank’s profit and loss account or received, whichever is earlier.

8.2 This stipulation is not applicable to provisioning required to be made as indicated above. In other words, amounts set aside for making provision for NPAs as above are not eligible for tax deductions.

8.3 Therefore, the banks should either make full provision as per the guidelines or write-off such advances and claim such tax benefits as are applicable, by evolving appropriate methodology in consultation with their auditors/tax consultants. Recoveries made in such accounts should be offered for tax purposes as per the rules.

8.4 Write-off at Head Office Level

Banks may write­off advances at Head Office level, even though the relative advances are still outstanding in the branch books. However, it is necessary that provision is made as per the classification accorded to the respective accounts. In other words, if an advance is a loss asset, 100 percent provision will have to be made therefor.


PART B

Prudential Guidelines on Restructuring of Advances by Banks

9.  Background

9.1 The guidelines issued by the Reserve Bank of India on restructuring of advances (other than those restructured under a separate set of guidelines issued by the Rural Planning and Credit Department (RPCD) of the RBI on restructuring of advances on account of natural calamities) are divided into the following four categories :

(i)  Guidelines on restructuring of advances extended to industrial units.

(ii)  Guidelines on restructuring of advances extended to industrial units under the Corporate Debt Restructuring (CDR) Mechanism

(iii) Guidelines on restructuring of advances extended to Small and Medium Enterprises (SME)

(iv)  Guidelines on restructuring of all other advances.

In these four sets of guidelines on restructuring of advances, the differentiation has been broadly made based on whether a borrower is engaged in an industrial activity or a non-industrial activity. In addition an elaborate institutional mechanism has been laid down for accounts restructured under CDR Mechanism. The major difference in the prudential regulations lies in the stipulation that subject to certain conditions, the accounts of borrowers engaged in industrial activities (under CDR Mechanism, SME Debt Restructuring Mechanism and outside these mechanisms) continue to be classified in the existing asset classification category upon restructuring. This benefit of retention of asset classification on restructuring is not available to the accounts of borrowers engaged in non-industrial activities except to SME borrowers. Another difference is that the prudential regulations covering the CDR Mechanism and restructuring of advances extended to SMEs are more detailed and comprehensive than that covering the restructuring of the rest of the advances including the advances extended to the industrial units, outside CDR Mechanism. Further, the CDR Mechanism is available only to the borrowers engaged in industrial activities.

9.2 Since the principles underlying the restructuring of all advances were identical, the prudential regulations needed to be aligned in all cases. Accordingly, the prudential norms across all categories of debt restructuring mechanisms, other than those restructured on account of natural calamities which will continue to be covered by the extant guidelines issued by the RPCD were harmonised in August 2008. These prudential norms applicable to all restructurings including those under CDR Mechanism are laid down in para 11. The details of the institutional / organizational framework for CDR Mechanism and SME Debt Restructuring Mechanism are given in Annex-4.

It may be noted that while the general principles laid down in para 11 inter-alia stipulate that 'standard' advances should be re-classified as 'sub-standard' immediately on restructuring, all borrowers, with the exception of the borrowal categories specified in para 14.1 below ( i.e consumer and personal advances, advances classified as capital market and real estate exposures), will be entitled to retain the asset classification upon restructuring, subject to the conditions enumerated in para 14.2.

9.3 The CDR Mechanism (Annex 4) will also be available to the corporates engaged in non-industrial activities, if they are otherwise eligible for restructuring as per the criteria laid down for this purpose. Further, banks are also encouraged to strengthen the co-ordination among themselves in the matter of restructuring of consortium / multiple banking accounts, which are not covered under the CDR Mechanism.

10.  Key Concepts

Key concepts used in these guidelines are defined in Annex-5.

11.  General Principles and Prudential Norms for Restructured Advances

The principles and prudential norms laid down in this paragraph are applicable to all advances including the borrowers, who are eligible for special regulatory treatment for asset classification as specified in para 14. In these cases, the provisions of paras 11.1.2, 11.2.1 and 11.2.2 would stand modified by the provisions in para 14.

11.1 Eligibility criteria for restructuring of advances

11.1.1  Banks may restructure the accounts classified under 'standard', 'sub-standard' and 'doubtful' categories.

11.1.2  Banks can not reschedule / restructure / renegotiate borrowal accounts with retrospective effect. While a restructuring proposal is under consideration, the usual asset classification norms would continue to apply. The process of re- classification of an asset should not stop merely because restructuring proposal is under consideration. The asset classification status as on the date of approval of the restructured package by the competent authority would be relevant to decide the asset classification status of the account after restructuring / rescheduling / renegotiation. In case there is undue delay in sanctioning a restructuring package and in the meantime the asset classification status of the account undergoes deterioration, it would be a matter of supervisory concern.

11.1.3 Normally, restructuring can not take place unless alteration / changes in the original loan agreement are made with the formal consent / application of the debtor. However, the process of restructuring can be initiated by the bank in deserving cases subject to customer agreeing to the terms and conditions.

11.1.4  No account will be taken up for restructuring by the banks unless the financial viability is established and there is a reasonable certainty of repayment from the borrower, as per the terms of restructuring package. The viability should be determined by the banks based on the acceptable viability benchmarks determined by them, which may be applied on a case-by-case basis, depending on merits of each case. Illustratively, the parameters may include the Return on Capital Employed, Debt Service Coverage Ratio, Gap between the Internal Rate of Return and Cost of Funds and the amount of provision required in lieu of the diminution in the fair value of the restructured advance. The accounts not considered viable should not be restructured and banks should accelerate the recovery measures in respect of such accounts. Any restructuring done without looking into cash flows of the borrower and assessing the viability of the projects / activity financed by banks would be treated as an attempt at ever greening a weak credit facility and would invite supervisory concerns / action.

11.1.5  While the borrowers indulging in frauds and malfeasance will continue to remain ineligible for restructuring, banks may review the reasons for classification of the borrowers as wilful defaulters specially in old cases where the manner of classification of a borrower as a wilful defaulter was not transparent and satisfy itself that the borrower is in a position to rectify the wilful default. The restructuring of such cases may be done with Board's approval, while for such accounts the restructuring under the CDR Mechanism may be carried out with the approval of the Core Group only.

11.1.6  BIFR cases are not eligible for restructuring without their express approval. CDR Core Group in the case of advances restructured under CDR Mechanism / the lead bank in the case of SME Debt Restructuring Mechanism and the individual banks in other cases, may consider the proposals for restructuring in such cases, after ensuring that all the formalities in seeking the approval from BIFR are completed before implementing the package.

11.2  Asset classification norms

Restructuring of advances could take place in the following stages :

(a)  before commencement of commercial production / operation;

(b) after commencement of commercial production / operation but before the asset has been classified as 'sub-standard';

(c) after commencement of commercial production / operation and the asset has been classified as 'sub-standard' or 'doubtful'.

11.2.1 The accounts classified as 'standard assets' should be immediately re-classified as 'sub-standard assets' upon restructuring.

11.2.2  The non-performing assets, upon restructuring, would continue to have the same asset classification as prior to restructuring and slip into further lower asset classification categories as per extant asset classification norms with reference to the pre-restructuring repayment schedule.

11.2.3  All restructured accounts which have been classified as non-performing assets upon restructuring, would be eligible for up-gradation to the 'standard' category after observation of 'satisfactory performance' during the 'specified period' (Annex-5).

11.2.4   In case, however, satisfactory performance after the specified period is not evidenced, the asset classification of the restructured account would be governed as per the applicable prudential norms with reference to the pre-restructuring payment schedule.

11.2.5  Any additional finance may be treated as 'standard asset', up to a period of one year after the first interest / principal payment, whichever is earlier, falls due under the approved restructuring package. However, in the case of accounts where the prerestructuring facilities were classified as 'sub-standard' and 'doubtful', interest income on the additional finance should be recognised only on cash basis. If the restructured asset does not qualify for upgradation at the end of the above specified one year period, the additional finance shall be placed in the same asset classification category as the restructured debt.

11.2.6 In case a restructured asset, which is a standard asset on restructuring, is subjected to restructuring on a subsequent occasion, it should be classified as substandard. If the restructured asset is a sub-standard or a doubtful asset and is subjected to restructuring, on a subsequent occasion, its asset classification will be reckoned from the date when it became NPA on the first occasion. However, such advances restructured on second or more occasion may be allowed to be upgraded to standard category after one year from the date of first payment of interest or repayment of principal whichever falls due earlier in terms of the current restructuring package subject to satisfactory performance.

11.3  Income recognition norms

Subject to provisions of paragraphs 11.2.5, 12.2 and 13.2, interest income in respect of restructured accounts classified as 'standard assets' will be recognized on accrual basis and that in respect of the accounts classified as 'non-performing assets' will be recognized on cash basis.

11.4  Provisioning norms

11.4.1 Normal provisions

Banks will hold provision against the restructured advances as per the existing provisioning norms.

11.4.2  Provision for diminution in the fair value of restructured advances

(i) Reduction in the rate of interest and / or reschedulement of the repayment of principal amount, as part of the restructuring, will result in diminution in the fair value of the advance. Such diminution in value is an economic loss for the bank and will have impact on the bank's market value of equity. It is, therefore, necessary for banks to measure such diminution in the fair value of the advance and make provisions for it by debit to Profit & Loss Account. Such provision should be held in addition to the provisions as per existing provisioning norms as indicated in para 11.4.1 above, and in an account distinct from that for normal provisions.

For this purpose, the erosion in the fair value of the advance should be computed as the difference between the fair value of the loan before and after restructuring. Fair value of the loan before restructuring will be computed as the present value of cash flows representing the interest at the existing rate charged on the advance before restructuring and the principal, discounted at a rate equal to the bank's BPLR as on the date of restructuring plus the appropriate term premium and credit risk premium for the borrower category on the date of restructuring. Fair value of the loan after restructuring will be computed as the present value of cash flows representing the interest at the rate charged on the advance on restructuring and the principal, discounted at a rate equal to the bank's BPLR as on the date of restructuring plus the appropriate term premium and credit risk premium for the borrower category on the date of restructuring.

The above formula moderates the swing in the diminution of present value of loans with the interest rate cycle and will have to follow consistently by banks in future. Further, it is reiterated that the provisions required as above arise due to the action of the banks resulting in change in contractual terms of the loan upon restructuring which are in the nature of financial concessions. These provisions are distinct from the provisions which are linked to the asset classification of the account classified as NPA and reflect the impairment due to deterioration in the credit quality of the loan. Thus, the two types of the provisions are not substitute for each other.

(ii)  In the case of working capital facilities, the diminution in the fair value of the cash credit / overdraft component may be computed as indicated in para (i) above, reckoning the higher of the outstanding amount or the limit sanctioned as the principal amount and taking the tenor of the advance as one year. The term premium in the discount factor would be as applicable for one year. The fair value of the term loan components (Working Capital Term Loan and Funded Interest Term Loan) would be computed as per actual cash flows and taking the term premium in the discount factor as applicable for the maturity of the respective term loan components.

(iii)  In the event any security is taken in lieu of the diminution in the fair value of the advance, it should be valued at Re.1/- till maturity of the security. This will ensure that the effect of charging off the economic sacrifice to the Profit & Loss account is not negated.

(iv)  The diminution in the fair value may be re-computed on each balance sheet date till satisfactory completion of all repayment obligations and full repayment of the outstanding in the account, so as to capture the changes in the fair value on account of changes in BPLR, term premium and the credit category of the borrower. Consequently, banks may provide for the shortfall in provision or reverse the amount of excess provision held in the distinct account.

(v) If due to lack of expertise / appropriate infrastructure, a bank finds it difficult to ensure computation of diminution in the fair value of advances extended by small / rural branches, as an alternative to the methodology prescribed above for computing the amount of diminution in the fair value, banks will have the option of notionally computing the amount of diminution in the fair value and providing therefor, at five percent of the total exposure, in respect of all restructured accounts where the total dues to bank(s) are less than rupees one crore till the financial year ending March 2011. The position would be reviewed thereafter.

11.4.3 The total provisions required against an account ( normal provisions  plus provisions in lieu of diminution in the fair value of the advance) are capped at 100% of the outstanding debt amount.

12.  Prudential Norms for Conversion of Principal into Debt / Equity

12.1  Asset classification norms

A part of the outstanding principal amount can be converted into debt or equity instruments as part of restructuring. The debt / equity instruments so created will be classified in the same asset classification category in which the restructured advance has been classified. Further movement in the asset classification of these instruments would also be determined based on the subsequent asset classification of the restructured advance.

12.2  Income recognition norms

12.2.1  Standard Accounts

In the case of restructured accounts classified as 'standard', the income, if any, generated by these instruments may be recognised on accrual basis.

12.2.2  Non- Performing Accounts

In the case of restructured accounts classified as non-performing assets, the income, if any, generated by these instruments may be recognised only on cash basis.

12.3  Valuation and provisioning norms

These instruments should be held under AFS and valued as per usual valuation norms. Equity classified as standard asset should be valued either at market value, if quoted, or at break-up value, if not quoted (without considering the revaluation reserve, if any,)which is to be ascertained from the company's latest balance sheet. In case the latest balance sheet is not available the shares are to be valued at Rs 1. Equity instrument classified as NPA should be valued at market value, if quoted, and in case where equity is not quoted,it should be valued at Rs. 1. Depreciation on these instruments should not be offset against the appreciation in any other securities held under the AFS category.

13.  Prudential Norms for Conversion of Unpaid Interest into 'Funded Interest Term Loan' (FITL), Debt or Equity Instruments

13.1  Asset classification norms

The FITL / debt or equity instrument created by conversion of unpaid interest will be classified in the same asset classification category in which the restructured advance has been classified. Further movement in the asset classification of FITL / debt or equity instruments would also be determined based on the subsequent asset classification of the restructured advance.

13.2  Income recognition norms

13.2.1  The income, if any, generated by these instruments may be recognised on accrual basis, if these instruments are classified as 'standard', and on cash basis in the cases where these have been classified as a non-performing asset.

13.2.2  The unrealised income represented by FITL / Debt or equity instrument should have a corresponding credit in an account styled as "Sundry Liabilities Account (Interest Capitalization)".

13.2.3  In the case of conversion of unrealised interest income into equity, which is quoted, interest income can be recognized after the account is upgraded to standard category at market value of equity, on the date of such up gradation, not exceeding the amount of interest converted into equity.

13.2.4  Only on repayment in case of FITL or sale / redemption proceeds of the debt / equity instruments, the amount received will be recognized in the P&L Account, while simultaneously reducing the balance in the "Sundry Liabilities Account (Interest Capitalisation)".

13.3  Valuation & Provisioning norms

Valuation and provisioning norms would be as per para 12.3 above. The depreciation, if any, on valuation may be charged to the Sundry Liabilities (Interest Capitalisation) Account.

14. Special Regulatory Treatment for Asset Classification

14.1  The special regulatory treatment for asset classification, in modification to the provisions in this regard stipulated in para 11, will be available to the borrowers engaged in important business activities, subject to compliance with certain conditions as enumerated in para 14.2 below. Such treatment is not extended to the following categories of advances:

i. Consumer and personal advances;

ii. Advances classified as Capital market exposures;

iii. Advances classified as commercial real estate exposures

The asset classification of these three categories accounts as well as that of other accounts which do not comply with the conditions enumerated in para 14.2, will be governed by the prudential norms in this regard described in para 11 above.

14.2  Elements of special regulatory framework

The special regulatory treatment has the following two components :

(i) Incentive for quick implementation of the restructuring package.

(ii) Retention of the asset classification of the restructured account in the pre-restructuring asset classification category

14.2.1  Incentive for quick implementation of the restructuring package

As stated in para 11.1.2, during the pendency of the application for restructuring of the advance with the bank, the usual asset classification norms would continue to apply. The process of reclassification of an asset should not stop merely because the application is under consideration. However, as an incentive for quick implementation of the package, if the approved package is implemented by the bank as per the following time schedule, the asset classification status may be restored to the position which existed when the reference was made to the CDR Cell in respect of cases covered under the CDR Mechanism or when the restructuring application was received by the bank in non-CDR cases:

(i) Within 120 days from the date of approval under the CDR Mechanism.

(ii) Within 90 days from the date of receipt of application by the bank in cases other than those restructured under the CDR Mechanism.

14.2.2  Asset classification benefits

Subject to the compliance with the undernoted conditions in addition to the adherence to the prudential framework laid down in para 11:

(i) In modification to para 11.2.1, an existing 'standard asset' will not be downgraded to the sub-standard category upon restructuring.

(ii) In modification to para 11.2.2, during the specified period, the asset classification of the sub-standard / doubtful accounts will not deteriorate upon restructuring, if satisfactory performance is demonstrated during the specified period.

However, these benefits will be available subject to compliance with the following conditions:

i)  The dues to the bank are 'fully secured' as defined in Annex 5. The condition of being fully secured by tangible security will not be applicable in the following cases:

(a)  SSI borrowers, where the outstanding is up to Rs.25 lakh.

(b) Infrastructure projects, provided the cash flows generated from these projects are adequate for repayment of the advance, the financing bank(s) have in place an appropriate mechanism to escrow the cash flows, and also have a clear and legal first claim on these cash flows.

ii) The unit becomes viable in 10 years, if it is engaged in infrastructure activities, and in 7 years in the case of other units.

iii) The repayment period of the restructured advance including the moratorium, if any, does not exceed 15 years in the case of infrastructure advances and 10 years in the case of other advances. The aforesaid ceiling of 10 years would not be applicable for restructured home loans; in these cases the Board of Director of the banks should prescribe the maximum period for restructured advance keeping in view the safety and soundness of the advances. Lending to individuals meant for acquiring residential property which are fully secured by mortgages on residential property that is or will be occupied by the borrower or that is rented are risk weighted as under the new capital adequacy framework, provided the LTV is not more than 75% , based on board approved valuation policy. However, the restructured housing loans should be risk weighted with an additional risk weight of 25 percentage points to the risk weight prescribed already.

iv) Promoters' sacrifice and additional funds brought by them should be a minimum of 15% of banks' sacrifice. The term 'bank's sacrifice' means the amount of "erosion in the fair value of the advance", to be computed as per the methodology enumerated in para 11.4.2 (i) above. Further, the additional funds required to be brought in by the promoter should be brought up front and not be phased over a period of time.

v)  Personal guarantee is offered by the promoter except when the unit is affected by external factors pertaining to the economy and industry.

vi) The restructuring under consideration is not a 'repeated restructuring' as defined in para (v) of Annex 5.

15.  Miscellaneous

15.1 The banks should decide on the issue regarding convertibility (into equity) option as a part of restructuring exercise whereby the banks / financial institutions shall have the right to convert a portion of the restructured amount into equity, keeping in view the statutory requirement under Section 19 of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949, (in the case of banks) and relevant SEBI regulations.

15.2 Acquisition of equity shares / convertible bonds / convertible debentures in companies by way of conversion of debt / overdue interest can be done without seeking prior approval from RBI, even if by such acquisition the prudential capital market exposure limit prescribed by the RBI is breached. However, this will be subject to reporting of such holdings to RBI, Department of Banking Supervision (DBS), every month along with the regular DSB Return on Asset Quality. Nonetheless, banks will have to comply with the provisions of Section 19(2) of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949.

15.3  Acquisition of non-SLR securities by way of conversion of debt is exempted from the mandatory rating requirement and the prudential limit on investment in unlisted non-SLR securities, prescribed by the RBI, subject to periodical reporting to the RBI in the aforesaid DSB return.

15.4  Banks may consider incorporating in the approved restructuring packages creditor's rights to accelerate repayment and the borrower's right to pre-pay. The right of recompense should be based on certain performance criteria to be decided by the banks.

15.5 Since the spillover effects of the global downturn had also started affecting the Indian economy particularly from September 2008 onwards creating stress for the otherwise viable units / activities, certain modifications were made in the guidelines on restructuring as a onetime measure and for a limited period of time i.e. up to June 30, 2009. These relaxations have ceased to operate from July 1, 2009; however the same have been consolidated in Annex 8.

16.  Disclosures

Banks should also disclose in their published annual Balance Sheets, under "Notes on Accounts", information relating to number and amount of advances restructured, and the amount of diminution in the fair value of the restructured advances in Annex-7. The information would be required for advances restructured under CDR Mechanism, SME Debt Restructuring Mechanism and other categories separately. Banks must disclose the total amount outstanding in all the accounts / facilities of borrowers whose accounts have been restructured along with the restructured part or facility. This means even if only one of the facilities / accounts of a borrower has been restructured, the bank should also disclose the entire outstanding amount pertaining to all the facilities / accounts of that particular borrower.

17.  Illustrations

A few illustrations on the asset classification of restructured accounts are given in Annex-7.

18. We re-iterate that the basic objective of restructuring is to preserve economic value of units, not evergreening of problem accounts. This can be achieved by banks and the borrowers only by careful assessment of the viability, quick detection of weaknesses in accounts and a time-bound implementation of restructuring packages.


Part C

Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 - Prudential Norms on
Income Recognition, Asset Classification, Provisioning, and Capital Adequacy

19. The Background

The Hon'ble Finance Minister,  Government of India, in his Budget Speech (paragraph 73) for 2008-09 has announced a debt waiver and debt relief scheme for farmers, for implementation by, inter alia, all scheduled commercial banks (SCBs), and Local Area Banks (LABs). The detailed scheme announced by the Government of India was communicated to the SCBs and LABs vide our circular RPCD.No.PLFS.BC.72/05.04.02/2007-08 dated May 23, 2008. The guidelines pertaining to Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning, and Capital Adequacy as applicable to the loans covered by the captioned scheme, are furnished below.

20. Prudential Norms for the Borrowal Accounts Covered under the
Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 (ADWDRS)

As advised vide the circular RPCD.No.PLFS.BC.72/05.04.02/2007-08 dated May 23, 2008, while the entire 'eligible amount' shall be waived in the case of a small or marginal farmer, in the case of 'other farmers', there will be a one time settlement scheme (OTS) under which the farmer will be given a rebate of 25 per cent of the 'eligible amount' subject to the condition that the farmer repays the balance of 75 per cent of the 'eligible amount'.

20.1 Norms for the Accounts subjected to Debt Waiver

20.1.1  As regards the small and marginal farmers eligible for debt waiver, the amount eligible for waiver, as defined in the Para 4 of the enclosure to the aforesaid circular, pending receipt from the Government of India, may be transferred by the banks to a separate account named "Amount receivable from Government of India under Agricultural Debt Waiver Scheme 2008". The balance in this account should be reflected in Schedule 9 (Advances) of the Balance sheet.

20.1.2 The balance in this account may be treated by the banks as a "performing" asset, provided adequate provision is made for the loss in Present Value (PV) terms, computed under the assumption that such payments would be received from Government of India in the following installments :

a)  32% of the total amount due by September 30, 2008,

b) 19% by July 31, 2009,

c)  39% by July 2010, and

d)  the remaining 10% by July 2011.

However, the provision required under the current norms for standard assets, need not be provided for in respect of the balance in this account.

20.1.3  The discount rate for arriving at the loss in PV terms as at para 20.1.2 above should be taken as 9.56 per cent, being the yield to maturity on 364-day Government of India Treasury Bill, prevailing as on the date of the circular DBOD.No.BP.BC.26/21.04.048/2008-09 dated July 30, 2008.

20.1.4 The prudential provisions held in respect of the NPA accounts for which the debt waiver has been granted may be reckoned for meeting the provisions required on PV basis.

20.1.5  In case, however, the amount of prudential provision held is more than the amount of provision required on PV basis, such excess provision may be reversed in a phased manner. This phased reversal may be effected in the proportion of 32%, 19%, 39%, and 10% during the years ended March 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively, only after the installments due from the Government, for the relative years, have been received.

20.1.6  On receipt of the final instalment from the Government, the provision made for loss in PV terms may be transferred to the General Reserves, below the line.

20.1.7 In case the claim of a farmer is specifically rejected at any stage, the asset classification of the account should be determined with reference to the original date of NPA (as if the account had not been treated as performing in the interregnum based on the transfer of the loan balance to the aforesaid account) and suitable provision should be made. The provision made on PV basis may also be reckoned against the NPA-provisions required, consequent upon the account being treated as NPA due to the rejection of the claim.

20.2.  Norms for the Accounts subjected to the Debt Relief

20.2.1    Under the scheme, in the case of 'other' farmers, the farmer will be given a rebate of 25% of the "eligible amount", by the Government by credit to his account, provided the farmer pays the balance of 75% of the 'eligible amount'. The Scheme provides for payment of share of 75% by such farmers in three instalments and the first two instalments shall be for an amount not less than one-third of the farmer's share. The last dates of payment of the three instalments will be September 30, 2008; March 31, 2009 and June 30, 2009, respectively.

Asset Classification

20.2.2    Where the farmers covered under the Debt Relief Scheme have given the undertaking, agreeing to pay their share under the OTS, their relevant accounts may be treated by banks as "standard" / "performing" provided :

(a) adequate provision is made by the banks for the loss in PV terms for all the receivables due from the borrowers as well as the Government; and

(b) such farmers pay their share of the settlement within one month of the due dates

However, no grace period is allowed for the last instalment and the entire share of the farmer is payable by June 30, 2009 (cf Para 21.2)

Provisioning

20.2.3  Provisioning for Standard Assets

The accounts subject to debt relief would stand classified as standard assets after receipt of the aforesaid undertaking from the borrowers. Accordingly, such accounts would also attract the prudential provisioning as applicable to standard assets.

20.2.4  Provisioning on PV Basis

For computing the amount of loss in PV terms under the Scheme, the cash flows receivable from the farmers, as per the repayment schedule vide para 20.2.1 above, as well as from the government should be discounted to the present value. It may be assumed in this context that the Government's contribution would be received by June 30, 2010. The discount rate to be applied for the purpose should be the interest rate at which the loan was granted including the element of interest subsidy, if any, available from the Government.

20.2.5  The prudential provisions held in respect of the NPA accounts, for which the debt relief has been granted, may be reckoned for meeting the provisions required on PV basis as well as for the standard assets (pursuant to classification of these loans as standard) and shortfall, if any, may be provided for. Thus, the total provisions held would comprise the provisions required on PV basis, provision for standard assets and excess prudential provisions, if any, towards NPA.

20.2.6 Provisioning in case of down-gradation of accounts:

As mentioned at para 20.2.2 (b) above, the accounts subject to Debt Relief Scheme would be classified as standard / performing assets only if the farmers pay their share of the settlement within one month of the pre-specified due dates. In case, however, the payments are delayed by the farmers beyond one month of the respective due dates, the outstanding amount in the relevant accounts of such farmers shall be treated as NPA. The asset classification of such accounts shall be determined with reference to the original date of NPA, (as if the account had not been treated as performing in the interregnum based on the aforesaid undertaking). On such down-gradation of the accounts, additional provisions as per the extant prudential norms should also be made.

For meeting this additional provisioning requirement, the excess prudential provisions, if any, held; the amount of provisions held for standard assets (as per para 3.3 above) together with the provision made on PV basis, all in respect of such downgraded account, could be reckoned. Such additional prudential provisions too should be continued to be held and reversed only as per the stipulation at para 20.2.7 below.

20.2.7  Reversal of Excess Prudential Provisions

In case the amount of the prudential NPA provisions held are larger than the aggregate of the provision required on PV basis and for the standard assets (pursuant to classification of these loans as standard), such excess prudential provision should not be reversed but be continued to be held till the earlier of the two events, viz., :

(a) till the entire outstanding of the borrower stands repaid - at which point, the entire amount could be reversed to the P/L account; or

(b) when the amount of such excess provision exceeds the amount outstanding on account of the repayments by the borrower - at which point, the amount of provision in excess of the outstanding amount could be reversed to the P/L account.

20.2.8  Reversal of the Provisions made on PV Basis

The provision made on PV basis represents a permanent loss to the bank on account of delayed receipt of cash flows and hence, should not be reversed to the P/L Account. The amount of such provision should, therefore, be carried till the account is finally settled and after receipt of the Government's contribution under the Scheme, the amount should be reversed to the General Reserves, below the line.

20.3   Grant of Fresh Loans to the Borrowers covered under the ADWDRS

20.3.1    A small or marginal farmer will become eligible for fresh agricultural loans upon the eligible amount being waived, in terms of para 7.2 of the enclosure to the circular RPCD.No.PLFS.BC.72/05.04.02/2007-08 dated May 23, 2008. The fresh loan may be treated as "performing asset", regardless of the asset classification of the loan subjected to the Debt Waiver, and its subsequent asset classification should be governed by the extant IRAC norms.

20.3.2    In case of "other farmers" eligible for fresh short-term production loans and investment loans, as provided for in Para 7.6 and 7.7, respectively, of the enclosure to the circular RPCD.No.PLFS.BC.72/05.04.02/2007-08 dated May 23, 2008, these fresh loans may be treated as "performing assets", regardless of the asset classification of the loan subjected to the Debt Relief, and its subsequent asset classification should be governed by the extant IRAC norms.

20.4  Capital Adequacy

The amount outstanding in the account styled as "Amount receivable from Government of India under Agricultural Debt Waiver Scheme 2008" shall be treated as a claim on the Government of India and would attract zero risk weight for the purpose of capital adequacy norms. However, the amount outstanding in the accounts covered by the Debt Relief Scheme shall be treated as a claim on the borrowers and risk weighted as per the extant norms. This treatment would apply under the Basel I as well as Basel II Frameworks.

21.  Subsequent Modifications to the Prudential Norms

21.1   Interest payment by the GOI

The Government of India has subsequently decided to pay interest on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instalments, payable by July 2009, July 2010, and July 2011 respectively, at the prevailing Yield to Maturity Rate on 364-day Government of India Treasury Bills. The interest will be paid on these instalments from the date of the reimbursement of the first instalment (i.e. November 2008) till the date of the actual reimbursement of each instalment.

In view of the above, in supersession of the instructions contained in paragraphs 20.1.2 to 20.1.7, 20.2.2 (a), and 20.2.4 to 20.2.8 above, it has been decided that the banks need not make any provisions for the loss in Present Value (PV) terms for moneys receivable only from the Government of India, for the accounts covered under the Debt Waiver Scheme and the Debt Relief Scheme.

21.2  Change in instalment schedule of “other farmers” under the Debt Relief Scheme

In view of the recent drought in some States and the severe floods in some other parts of the country, the Government of India, as announced in the Union Budget 2010-11, has now decided to extend the last date of payment of 75% of overdue portion by the 'other farmer' under Debt Relief Scheme (under ADWDR) up to June 30, 2010. The eligible "other farmers" may be allowed to repay this amount in one or more instalments up to June 30, 2010. The banks will not charge any interest on the eligible amount for the period from February 29, 2008 to June 30, 2009. However, they may charge normal rate of interest on the eligible amount from July 01, 2009 up to the date of settlement. Further, no interest shall be paid by the Government of India to the lending institutions for this extension under the Scheme while reimbursing the 25% amount to the lending institutions as per the delayed reimbursement schedule

The Government of India has also advised that the banks / lending institutions are allowed to receive even less than 75% of the eligible amount under OTS provided the banks / lending institutions bear the difference themselves and do not claim the same either from the Government or from the farmer. The Government will pay only 25% of the actual eligible amount under debt relief.

21.3   In case, however, the payments are delayed by the farmers beyond June 30, 2010, the outstanding amount in the relevant accounts of such farmers shall be treated as NPA. The asset classification of such accounts shall be determined with reference to the original date of NPA, (as if the account had not been treated as performing in the interregnum based on the aforesaid undertaking). On such down-gradation of the accounts, additional provisions as per the extant prudential norms should also be made.

21.4  Please refer to the paragraph 20.1.1 which provides that in case of small and marginal farmers eligible for debt waiver, the amount eligible for waiver, pending receipt from the Government of India may be transferred by the banks to a separate account named "Amount receivable from Government of India under Agricultural Debt Waiver Scheme 2008", and the balance in this account should be reflected in Schedule 9 (Advances) of the Balance Sheet. It is now clarified that in case of 'other farmers' eligible for debt relief, after the 'other farmer' has paid his entire share of 75%, banks may open an account for Debt Relief Scheme, similar to the one opened for the receivables from GOI under the Debt Waiver Scheme, and bearing the nomenclature "Amount receivable from Government of India under Agricultural Debt Relief Scheme 2008". This amount may also be reflected in Schedule 9 (Advances) of the Balance Sheet.


Annex - 9

(Cf. para 2 of the covering letter to the circular)

List of Circulars consolidated by the Master Circular on IRAC Norms

Sl.
No.

Circular No.

Date

Subject

Para No. of the MC

1.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.96/08.12.014/2009-10

23.04.2010

Prudential Norms on Advances to Infrastructure Sector

5.4 (ii), and 5.4 (iii) (b)

2.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.85/21.04.048/2009-10

31.03.2010

Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning Pertaining to Advances - Projects under Implementation

4.2.15

3.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.82/21.04.048/2009-10

30.03.2010

Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 - Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification, Provisioning and Capital Adequacy

21.2, 21.3, 21.4

4.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.64/21.04.048/2009-10

01.12.2009

Second Quarter Review of Monetary Policy for the Year 2009-10 - Provisioning Coverage for Advances

5.10, Annex 3

5.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.58/21.04.048/2009-10

05.11.2009

Second Quarter Review of Monetary Policy for the Year 2009-10 - Provisioning Requirement for Standard Assets

5.5 (i)

6.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.46/21.04.048/2009-10

24.09.2009

Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and
Provisioning pertaining to Advances - Computation of NPA Levels

3.2, 3.4 3.5, Annex -1

7.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.35/21.04.048/2009-10

31.08.2009

Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 - Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification, Provisioning and Capital Adequacy

21.2, 21.3, 21.4

8.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.33/21.04.048/2009-10

27.08.2009

Prudential Treatment in respect of Floating Provisions

5.6.3

9.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.140/21.04.048/2008-09

25.06.2009

Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 - Prudential Norms on IRAC, Provisioning and Capital Adequacy 

21.2

10.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.125/21.04.048/2008-09

17.04.2009

Prudential Norms on Unsecured Advances 

5.4(iii)

11.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.No.124/21.04.132/2008-09

17.04.2009

Prudential Guidelines on Restructuring of Advances 

Annex 4

12.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.122/21.04.048/2008-09

09/04/2009 

Prudential Treatment in respect of Floating Provisions 

5.6.3

13.

DBOD.BP.BC.121/21.04.132/2008-09

09.04.2009

Prudential guidelines on Restructuring of Advances

11.4.2

14.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.112/21.04.048/2008-09

05.03.2009

Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 - Prudential Norms on IRAC, Provisioning and Capital Adequacy 

21.2

15.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.118/21.04.048/2008-09 

25/03/2009 

Prudential Treatment of different Types of Provisions in respect of Loan Portfolios

5.6.3, 5.7, 5.9.9, 5.9.10

16.

DBOD.BP.BC.105/21.04.132/2008-09

04.02.2009

Prudential guidelines on Restructuring of Advances

Annex 8

17.

DBOD.BP.BC.104/21.04.132/2008-09

02.01.2009

Prudential guidelines on Restructuring of Advances.

Annex 8

18.

DBOD.BP.BC.93/21.04.132/2008-09

08.12.2008

Prudential guidelines on Restructuring of Advances

Annex 8

19.

DBOD.BP.BC.83/21.01.002/2008-09

15/11/2008 

Review of Prudential Norms - Provisioning for Standard Assets and Risk Weights for Exposures to Corporates, Commercial Real Estate and NBFC-ND-SI 

5.5

 

 

20.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.84/21.04.048/2008-09

14/11/2008 

Asset Classification Norms for Infrastructure Projects under Implementation 

4.2.15, Annex 8

21.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.78/21.04.048/2008-09

11.11.2008

Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 - Prudential Norms on IRAC, Provisioning and Capital Adequacy 

21.1

22.

DBOD.BP.BC.76/21.04.132/2008-09

03.11.2008

Prudential guidelines on Restructuring of Advances

14.2.2

23.

DBOD.BP.BC.No.69/21.03.009/2008-09

29/10/2008 

Prudential Norms for Off-Balance Sheet Exposures of Banks 

4.2.7 (iv)

 

24.

DBOD.BP.BC.58/21.04.048/2008-09

13.10.2008

(i) Disbursal of Loans against Sanctioned Limits (ii) Restructuring of Dues of the Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) 

Annex 4

25.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.57/21.04.157/2008-09

13/10/2008 

Prudential Norms for Off-balance Sheet Exposures of Banks 

2.1.2 (vii), 4.2.7 (iv) to 4.2.7 (vii)

26.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.48/21.04.048/2008-09

22/09/2008 

Prudential Norms on Utilisation of Floating Provisions - Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 

5.6.2

27.

DBOD.BP.BC.37/21.04.132/2008-09

27.08.2008

Prudential guidelines on Restructuring of Advances comprehensive guidelines

Para 9 to 18

28.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.31/21.04.157/2008-09

08/08/2008 

Prudential Norms for Off-balance Sheet Exposures of Banks 

2.1.2 (vii),
5.9.12

29.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.26/21.04.048/2008-09

30.07.2008

Agricultural Debt Waiver and Debt Relief Scheme, 2008 - Prudential Norms on IRAC, Provisioning and Capital Adequacy 

20

30.

DBOD.BP.BC.82/21.04.048/2007-08

08.05.2008

 

Prudential Norms on Asset Classification Pertaining to Advances - Infrastructure Projects under Implementation and Involving Time Overrun

4.2.15 (iv)

31.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.34/21.04.048/2007-08

04.10.2007

Guidelines on Purchase / Sale of Non Performing Assets

7.5 (iii)

32.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.97/21.04.048/2006-07

16.05.2007

Guidelines on Purchase / Sale of Non Performing Assets

7.5 (iii)

33.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.76/21.04.048/2006-07

12.04.2007

Prudential Norms on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning Pertaining to Advances - Projects Involving Time Overrun

4.2.15 (iv)

34.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.68/21.04.048/2006-07

13.03.2007

Prudential Norms on Creation and Utilisation of Floating Provisions

5.6.2

35.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.53/21.04.048/2006-2007

31.01.2007

Third Quarter Review of the Annual Statement on Monetary Policy for the year 2006-07 - Provisioning Requirement for Standard Assets and Risk Weights for Capital Adequacy

5.5 (i)

36.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.21/21.04.048/2006-2007

12.07.2006

Annual Policy Statement for the year 2006-07 -
Additional Provisioning Requirement for Standard Assets

5.5 (i)

37.

DBOD.NO.BP.BC.89/ 21.04.048/ 2005­06

22.06.2006

Prudential norms on creation and utilization of floating provisions

5.6

38.

DBOD.NO.BP.BC.85/ 21.04.048/ 2005­06

29.05.2006

Annual Policy  Statement for the year 2006­07: Additional Provisioning Requirement for Standard Assets

5.5(i)

39

DBOD.NO.BP.BC.45 /21.0421.04.048/2005 ­06

10.11.2005

Revised Guidelines on Corporate Debt Restructuring(CDR) Mechanism

Part B

40.

DBOD.NO.BP.BC.46 /21.0421.04.048/2005-06

10.11.2005

Debt restructuring mechanism for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)

Part B

41.

DBOD.NO.BP.BC.40/ 21.04.048/ 2005-06

04.11.2005

Mid­Term Review of Annual  Policy  Statement for the year 2005­06: Additional Provisioning Requirement for Standard Assets

5.5(i)

42.

DBOD.NO.BP.BC. 34 /21.04.132/2005­06

08.09.2005

Debt restructuring mechanism for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) ­Announcement made by the Union Finance Minister

Part B

43.

DBOD.NO.BP.BC.16/ 21.04.048/ 2005­06

13.07.2005

Guidelines on purchase/sale of Non performing Assets

7

44.

DBOD.BP.BC.34/21.0 4.048/2004­05

26.08.2004

Repayment schedule of rural housing loans

4.2.13(vi)

45.

DBOD.BP.BC.29/21.04.048/2004-05

13.08.2004

Prudential norms –State Government guaranteed exposures

4.2.14

46.

RPCD No. Plan.BC 92/04.09.01/2003-04

24.06.2004

Flow of credit to Agriculture

4.2.13 (iv)

47.

DBOD No. BP.BC 102/21.04.048/2003­04

24.06.2004

Prudential Norms for Agricultural Advances

2.1.2(iv),(v)4.2.10, 4.2.13(i)

48.

DBOD No. BP.BC 99/21.04.048/2003-04

21.06.2004

Additional Provisioning Requirement for NPAs

5

49.

DBOD No. BP.BC 97/21.04.141/2003-04

17.06.2004

Prudential Guidelines on Unsecured Exposures

5.4

50.

DBOD No. BP.BC 96/21.04.103/2003­04

17.06.2004

Country Risk Management Guidelines

5.9.8

51.

DBOD No. BP.BC96/21.04.048/2002­03

23.04.2003

Guidelines on sale of  financial assets to Securitisation / reconstruction company and related issues

6

52.

DBOD BP.BC. NO.74/21.04.048/2002-2003

27.02.2003

Projects under implementation involving time overrun

4.2.15

53.

DBOD No. BP.BC. 71/21.04.103/2002­2003

19.02.2003

Risk Management Systems in Banks – Guidelines on Country Risk Management

5.9.8

54.

DBOD BP.BC. No.69/21.04.048/2002­03

10.02.2003

Upgradation of loan accounts classified as NPAs

4.2.5

55.

DBOD. BP.BC No. 44/21.04.048/2002-03

30.11.2002

Agricultural loans affected by natural calamities

4.2.13

56.

DBOD No.BP.BC. 108/ 21.04.048/2001­2002

28.05.2002

Income recognition, asset classification and provisioning on advances ­treatment of  projects under implementation involving time overrun

4.2.15

57.

DBOD No.BP.BC. 101/ 21.01.002/ 2001­02

09.05.2002

Corporate Debt Restructuring

Part B

58.

DBOD No.BP.BC. 100/ 21.01.002/ 2001-02

09.05.2002

Prudential norms on asset classification

4.1.2

59.

DBOD No.BP.BC. 59/ 21.04.048/2001-2002

22.01.2002

Prudential norms on income recognition, asset classification and Provisioning ­agricultural advances

4.2.13

60.

DBOD No.BP.BC. 25/ 21.04.048/2000­2001

11.09.2001

Prudential norms on income recognition, asset classification and provisioning

3

61.

DBOD No.BP.BC. 15 / 21.04.114/2000­2001

23.08.2001

Corporate Debt Restructuring

Part B

62.

DBOD No.BP.BC. 132/ 21.04.048/2000­2001

14.06.2001

Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning for Advances

4.2

63.

DBOD No. BP.BC. 128/ 21.04.048/2000-2001

07.06.2001

SSI Advances Guaranteed by CGTSI – Risk­weight and provisioning norms

5.9.5

64.

DBOD No. BP. BC. 116 /21.04.048/ 2000-2001

02.05.2001

Monetary & Credit Policy Measures 
2001­02

2.1.2

65.

DBOD No. BP. BC. 98/ 21.04.048/ 2000­2001

30.03.2001

Treatment of Restructured Accounts

Part B

66.

DBOD No. BP. BC. 40 / 21.04.048/ 2000­2001

30.10.2000

Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning ­Reporting of NPAs to RBI

3.5

67.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.161/21.04.0 48/ 2000

24.04.2000

Prudential Norms on Capital Adequacy, Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning, etc.

5.5

68.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.144/21.04.0 48/ 2000

29.02.2000

Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning and Other Related Matters and Adequacy Standards ­Takeout Finance

4.2.16

69.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.138/21.04.0 48/ 2000

07.02.2000

Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning ­Export Project Finance

4.2.18

70.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.103/21.04.0 48/ 99

21.10.99

Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning ­Agricultural Finance by Commercial Banks through Primary Agricultural Credit Societies

4.2.10

71.

DBOD.No.FSC.BC.70/24.01. 001/ 99

17.07.99

Equipment Leasing Activity ­Accounting/ Provisioning Norms

3.2.3, 5.8

72.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.45/21.04.04 8/99

10.05.99

Income Recognition Asset Classification and Provisioning ­Concept of Commencement of Commercial Production

4.2.15

73.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.120/21.04.0 48/ 98

29.12.98

Prudential  norms  on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning ­Agricultural Loans Affected by Natural Calamities

4.2.13

74.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.103/21.01.0 02/ 98

31.10.98

Monetary & Credit Policy Measures

4.1.1, 4.1.2, 5.5

75.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.17/21.04.04 8/98

04.03.98

Prudential Norms  on Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning ­Agricultural Advances

4.2.13

76.

DOS. No. CO.PP. BC.6 / 11.01.005/ 96­97

15.05.97

Assessments  relating to asset valuation and loan loss provisioning

5.1.1

77.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.29/21.04.04 8/97

09.04.97

Income Recognition Asset Classification and Provisioning ­Agricultural Advances

4.2.13

78.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.14/21.04.048/97

19.02.97

Income Recognition Asset Classification and Provisioning ­Agricultural Advances

4.2.13

79.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.9/21.04.048 /97

29.01.97

Prudential Norms ­Capital Adequacy, Income Recognition Asset Classification and Provisioning

4.2.4, 4.2.5, 4.2.8, 4.2.9

80.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.163/21.04.0 48/ 96

24.12.96

Classification of Advances with Balance less than Rs. 25,000/­

4.1

81.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.65/21.04.048/96

04.06.96

Income Recognition
Asset Classification and Provisioning

4.2.8

82.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.26/21.04.048/96

19.03.96

Nonperforming Advances ­Reporting to RBI

3.5

83.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.25/21.04.048/96

19.03.96

Income Recognition
Asset Classification and Provisioning

4.2.8, 4.2.14

84.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.134/21.04.0 48/ 95

20.11.95

EXIM Bank's New Lending Programme Extension of Guarantee­ cum­ Refinance to Commercial Bank in respect of Post­ shipment Supplier's Credit

4.2.17

85.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.36/21.04.048/95

03.04.95

Income Recognition
Asset Classification and Provisioning

3.2.2, 3.3, 4.2.17 5.8.1

86.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.134/21.04.0 48/ 94

14.11.94

Income Recognition Asset Classification Provisioning and Other Related Matters

5

87.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.58/21.04.04 8­94

16.05.94

Income Recognition Asset Classification and Provisioning and Capital Adequacy Norms ­ Clarifications

5

88.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.50/21.04.048/94

30.04.94

Income Recognition Asset Classification and Provisioning

5.9.4

89.

DOS.BC.4/16.14.001/93­94

19.03.94

Credit Monitoring System ­Health Code System for Borrowal Accounts

1.3

90.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.8/21.04.043 /94

04.02.94

Income Recognition, Provisioning and Other Related Matters

3.1.2, 3.4, 4.2

91.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.195/21.04.0 48/ 93

24.11.93

Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning ­Clarifications

4.2

92.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.95/21.04.048/93

23.03.93

Income Recognition, Asset Classification, Provisioning and Other Related Matters

3.2, 5

93.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.59/21.04.04 3­92

17.12.92

Income Recognition, Asset Classification and Provisioning ­Clarifications

3.2.1, 3.2.2, 4.2

94.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.129/21.04.0 43­92

27.04.92

Income Recognition, Asset Classification, Provisioning and Other Related Matters

1.1, 1.2, 2.1.1, 2.2,3.1.1,3.1.3, 4.1, 4.1.1, 4.1.2, 4.1.3, 4.2, 5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4

95.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.42/C.469 (W)­90

31.10.90

Classification of Non­ Performing Loans

3.1.1

96.

DBOD.No.Fol.BC.136/C.249­85

07.11.85

Credit Monitoring System ­Introduction of Health Code for  Borrowal Accounts in Banks

1.3

97.

DBOD.No.BP.BC.35/21.01.002/99

24.04.99

Monetary & Credit Policy Measures

4.2
 

98.

DBOD.No.FSC.BC.18/24.01.001/ 93­94

19.02.94

 

Equipment Leasing, Hire Purchase, Factoring, etc. Activities

2.1, 3.2.3

 

 
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